This book, first published in 1961 and revised in 1964, is both a critical study of a body of thought and an historical account of how Marxist theory arose from the context of European history in the 19th century. It traces the development of socialist thought from the French to the Russian Revolutions and attempts to show in what manner the political and intellectual problems of Central Europe between 1848 and 1948 came to dominate the theory and practice of that Marxist movement which formed the crucial link between the two revolutions. The author takes the view that Marxism is a movement and a body of doctrine which belongs essentially to the 19th century, which came to an end with the First World War and the Russian Revolution, and that its impact as a doctrine has now been absorbed.

part 1|30 pages

The Heritage 1789–1840

chapter 1|10 pages

German Idealism

chapter 2|8 pages

Philosophic Radicalism

chapter 3|10 pages

Early Socialism

part 2|32 pages

The Marxian Synthesis 1840–1848

chapter 1|8 pages

The Logic of History

chapter 2|10 pages

The Critique of Society

chapter 3|12 pages

The Doctrine of Revolution

part 3|68 pages

The Test of Reality 1848–1871

chapter 1|11 pages

The German Question

chapter 2|14 pages

Nationalism and Democracy

chapter 3|10 pages

Socialism and the Labour Movement

chapter 4|12 pages

The First International

chapter 5|10 pages

The Commune

chapter 6|9 pages

The Permanent Revolution

part 4|70 pages

The Theory of Bourgeois Society 1850–1895

chapter 1|8 pages

The Victorian Watershed

chapter 2|13 pages

Historical Materialism

chapter 3|8 pages

Bourgeois Society

chapter 4|14 pages

Political Economy

chapter 5|25 pages

Marxian Economics

part 5|152 pages

Marxian Socialism 1871–1918

chapter 1|19 pages

General Character of the Period

chapter 2|12 pages

Marxism, Anarchism, Syndicalism

chapter 3|10 pages

Engels 1

chapter 4|15 pages

Dialectical Materialism

chapter 5|19 pages


chapter 6|23 pages

The Revisionists

chapter 7|24 pages

The Radicals

chapter 8|28 pages


part 6|48 pages

The Dissolution of the Marxian System 1918–1948

chapter 1|12 pages

War and Revolution

chapter 2|13 pages

State and Society

chapter 3|13 pages

Socialism and Class Conflict

chapter 4|8 pages

Beyond Marxism

chapter |6 pages