East Asia was a major focus of struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War of 1945 to 1991, with multiple "hot" and "cold" conflicts in China, Korea, and Vietnam. The struggle for predominance in East Asia, however, largely predated the Cold War, as this book shows, with many examples of the United States and Russia/the Soviet Union working to exercise and increase control in the region. The book focuses on secret treaties, 26 of them, signed from the mid-1890s through 1950, when secret agreements between China and the USSR, including several concerning the Chinese Eastern Railway, gave Russia greater control over Manchuria and Outer Mongolia. One of the most important was negotiated in 1945, when Stalin signed the Sino-Soviet Friendship Treaty with Chiang Kai-shek and the Chinese Nationalists, that included a secret protocol granting the Soviet Navy sea control over the Manchurian littorals. This secret protocol excluded the US Navy from landing Nationalist troops at the major Manchurian ports, thereby guaranteeing the Chinese Communist victory in Northeast China; from Manchuria, the Chinese Communists quickly spread south to take all of Mainland China. To a large degree, therefore, this formerly undiscussed secret diplomacy set the underlying conditions for the Cold War in East Asia.

chapter |96 pages


The international impact of secret diplomacy

chapter Treaty 1|6 pages

3 June 1896—Sino-Russian Treaty of Alliance

chapter Treaty 2|3 pages

28 April 1899—Anglo-Russian agreement

chapter Treaty 3|3 pages

6 September 1899—Open Door Policy notes

chapter Treaty 4|7 pages

5 September 1905—Portsmouth Peace Treaty

chapter Treaty 5|5 pages

30 July 1907—Russo-Japanese secret protocol

chapter Treaty 6|4 pages

4 July 1910—Russo-Japanese secret protocol

chapter Treaty 7|4 pages

25 June 1912—Russo-Japanese secret protocol

chapter Treaty 10|4 pages

2 November 1917—Lansing-Ishii agreement

chapter Treaty 12|3 pages

30 April 1919—US-Japanese Shandong note

chapter Treaty 13|8 pages

25 July 1919—Karakhan Manifesto

chapter Treaty 14|15 pages

31 May 1924—Sino-Soviet secret protocol

chapter Treaty 16|6 pages

20 January 1925—Soviet-Japanese convention

chapter Treaty 17|4 pages

20 January 1925—Bessarabia secret protocol

chapter Treaty 18|4 pages

22 December 1929—Sino-Soviet Khabarovsk treaty

chapter Treaty 19|4 pages

23 March 1935—CER protocol

chapter Treaty 20|4 pages

21 August 1937—Sino-Soviet non-aggression treaty

chapter Treaty 22|5 pages

13 April 1941—Soviet-Japanese neutrality pact

chapter Treaty 23|3 pages

11 February 1945—Yalta agreement

chapter Treaty 24|20 pages

14 August 1945—Sino-Soviet friendship treaty

chapter Treaty 25|7 pages

22 August 1945—General Order Number One

chapter Treaty 26|11 pages

14 February 1950—Sino-Soviet friendship treaty