First published in 1973. This title aims to use contemporary documents to illustrate the attitudes and relationships of working men towards each other and against other groups in society in the years 1815 to 1850. The material comes under three headings; the analysis of class in terms of economic and political theory; class relations in the years between the end of the French wars and the move into mid-Victorianism; and finally, the response to the more disturbing aspects of class by the appropriate vehicles of social control. This title will be of interest to students of history.



part One|85 pages

Glass and conflict—the analysis

chapter 1a|1 pages

Hereditary government

chapter 1b|1 pages

Producers and parasites

chapter 1c|2 pages

Producers and parasites illustrated

chapter 1d|2 pages

Taxation and working men

chapter 1e|2 pages

The structure of Old Corruption

chapter 1f|1 pages

The burden of taxation

chapter 1g|1 pages

Old Corruption or capitalism?

chapter 1h|1 pages

Times to try men's souls

chapter 2a|1 pages

The tyranny of the mind

chapter 2b|1 pages

Kingcraft, priestcraft, lordcraft

chapter 2c|1 pages

The testament of a secularist

chapter 3a|1 pages

The land, the people's farm

chapter 3b|1 pages

The parish commonwealth

chapter 3c|1 pages

Monopoly in land

chapter 3d|1 pages

Pledges for reform

chapter 3e|2 pages

Land and currency reform

chapter 4|1 pages

Competition—the attack on poverty

chapter 4a|1 pages

Population and poverty

chapter 4b|2 pages

Unemployment and the world of plenty

chapter 4c|1 pages

The virtues of Owenism

chapter 4d|2 pages

The morality of Owenism

chapter 4e|2 pages

Owenism and politics

chapter 5a|2 pages

Classical political economy

chapter 5b|2 pages

Political economy popularized

chapter 5d|1 pages

Equality of distribution

chapter 5e|2 pages

The fallacies of socialism

chapter 5f|1 pages

Labour for sale

chapter 5g|2 pages

Masters and men

chapter 5h|2 pages

Labour and capital contrasted

chapter 6|1 pages

Capitalism—the attack on exploitation

chapter 6a|1 pages

On wages

chapter 6b|1 pages


chapter 6c|1 pages

Free trade and the public good

chapter 6d|2 pages

The weaver's song

chapter 6e|1 pages

A warning

chapter 6f|1 pages

Exploitation and surplus value

chapter 6g|2 pages

The song of the low

chapter 7a|1 pages

The freedom of the weaver

chapter 7b|1 pages

The economy of sweating

chapter 7c|1 pages

The Moloch of machinery

chapter 7d|1 pages

A defence of machinery

chapter 7e|1 pages

Foreign trade and foreign benefits

chapter 7f|1 pages

Machinery and consumption

chapter 7g|1 pages

Under-consumption or over-production?

chapter 7h|2 pages

Machinery and mass misery

chapter 7i|2 pages

The demand for a regulated wage

chapter 7j|1 pages

Producers and consumers

chapter 8|1 pages

Politics and economics

chapter 8a|1 pages


chapter 8b|3 pages

A last warning on the accursed Reform Bill

chapter 8c|2 pages

The Reform Bill

chapter 9|1 pages

The language of class

chapter 9a|1 pages

The people

chapter 9b|1 pages

Glass and politics

chapter 9c|1 pages

The chimera of class conciliation

chapter 9d|1 pages

The boundaries of class

chapter 9e|1 pages

The definition of class

chapter 9f|1 pages

Three generations of radical language

part Two|229 pages

Class and conflict—action

chapter 1|1 pages

Peace and Peterloo

chapter 1a|2 pages

Hampden clubs

chapter 1b|2 pages

The early reform movement

chapter 1c|1 pages

The impact of Cobbett

chapter 1d|2 pages

Provocation and suppression, 1817

chapter 1e|2 pages

The Political Protestants

chapter 1f|3 pages


chapter 2a|4 pages

The politicization of distress

chapter 2b|3 pages

General union

chapter 2c|3 pages

The working of the Combination Acts

chapter 2d|2 pages

The Report of the Select Committee

chapter 2e|1 pages

Place's prophecy

chapter 3|1 pages

Rural unrest

chapter 3a|2 pages

The destruction of the rural economy

chapter 3b|1 pages

Swing: in Norfolk

chapter 3c|2 pages

The rural war

chapter 3d|4 pages

Village discipline

chapter 4|1 pages

Political unionism

chapter 4a|1 pages

The Birmingham Political Union

chapter 4b|3 pages

The National Union of the Working Glasses

chapter 4c|1 pages

Another version of the NUWC

chapter 4d|1 pages

The National Political Union

chapter 4e|1 pages

The NUWC and the NPU

chapter 4f|1 pages

The need for separate working-class unions

chapter 4g|1 pages

The middle-class radical platform

chapter 4j|2 pages

The LWMA demands reform

chapter 5|1 pages

The freedom of the press

chapter 5a|1 pages

The Six Acts

chapter 5b|1 pages

Supporters of a free press

chapter 5c|2 pages

The Unstamped press

chapter 5d|2 pages


chapter 6|1 pages

Parish radicalism

chapter 6a|1 pages

The Vestries Act and the Reform Act

chapter 6b|1 pages

The great procession

chapter 7|1 pages

Go-operation, 1820–35

chapter 7a|1 pages

Co-operation at Spa Fields

chapter 7b|2 pages

The early co-operative movement

chapter 7c|2 pages

Mutual exchange

chapter 7d|2 pages

Stores and societies

chapter 7e|1 pages

The impact of Owen

chapter 8a|2 pages

The need for union

chapter 8b|1 pages

Doherty and general union

chapter 8c|2 pages

The Grand National Holiday

chapter 8d|2 pages

The Operative Builders' Union

chapter 8e|2 pages

The argument for syndicalism

chapter 8f|2 pages

The Derby turn-out

chapter 8g|1 pages

From the other side

chapter 8j|3 pages

The Tolpuddle ‘Martyrs'

chapter 8l|2 pages

Masters and men in Norwich

chapter 8m|1 pages

Defence and desperation

chapter 8n|3 pages

The implications of unionism

chapter 9a|1 pages

Adults for children

chapter 9b|1 pages

Yorkshire slavery

chapter 9c|2 pages

The factory girl

chapter 9d|1 pages

Committee, commission and legislation

chapter 9e|1 pages

Child and adult labour

chapter 9f|2 pages

The National Regeneration Society

chapter 9g|1 pages

The charms of child labour

chapter 9i|1 pages

Defending the law

chapter 9j|1 pages

Cheap humanity

chapter 9k|1 pages

The politics of short time

chapter 10|1 pages

The new Poor Law, 1834

chapter 10a|1 pages

Paupers or labourers?

chapter 10b|2 pages

The demand for a repeal

chapter 10c|1 pages

Misery and relief

chapter 10d|1 pages

The rights of the poor undermined

chapter 10e|1 pages

Wages and the Poor Law

chapter 11|2 pages


chapter 11a|1 pages

Chartism: the middle-class interpretation

chapter 11b|1 pages

Chartism: the working-class view

chapter 11c|9 pages

The 1842 petition

chapter 12|1 pages

Protest Chartism

chapter 12a|1 pages

Distress and desperation

chapter 12b|1 pages

Ulterior measures

chapter 12c|2 pages

A meeting on ulterior measures

chapter 12d|1 pages

Pikes and guns

chapter 12e|2 pages

Physical force

chapter 12f|2 pages

The general strike

chapter 12g|7 pages

The national holiday

chapter 12h|2 pages

The Newport rising

chapter 12i|3 pages

Plans for a general rising

chapter 13|1 pages

Self-help Chartism

chapter 13a|2 pages

The National Charter Association, 1840

chapter 13b|3 pages

The move into popular politics

chapter 13c|1 pages

Municipal Chartism

chapter 13d|1 pages

Popular politics and exclusive dealing

chapter 13e|1 pages

Let us join the oppressed

chapter 13f|2 pages

Christian Chartism

chapter 13g|1 pages

Teetotal Chartism

chapter 13h|1 pages

Chartist schools

chapter 13i|3 pages

Knowledge Chartism and the new move

chapter 13j|1 pages

The verdict on all these new moves

chapter 13k|3 pages

Self-control and social control-a plea

chapter 14|1 pages

Chartism and the middle-class alliance

chapter 14a|1 pages

The propriety of a middle-class alliance

chapter 14b|2 pages

The middle-class union

chapter 14c|2 pages

The suffrage question

chapter 14d|5 pages

The Complete Suffrage Union

chapter 14e|3 pages

Chartism and the Anti-Corn Law League

chapter 14f|2 pages

Chartism and the bourgeoisie

chapter 14g|1 pages

The middle-class alliance

chapter 15|1 pages

Chartism and trade unionism

chapter 15a|1 pages

The involvement in politics

chapter 15b|2 pages

The Plug Plots, 1842

chapter 15c|2 pages

The declarations

chapter 15d|2 pages

Chartism: a conspiracy

chapter 15e|6 pages

Richard Pilling's defence, 1843

chapter 15f|1 pages

Miners and magistrates

chapter 15g|1 pages

Chartism and the trades

chapter 15h|5 pages

The theory and tactics of unionism

chapter 16|1 pages

The Land Plan

chapter 16b|1 pages

Free trade and the Land Plan

chapter 17|1 pages


chapter 17a|1 pages

Ulterior measures

chapter 17b|1 pages

Military preparations

chapter 17c|1 pages

A foreigner's comment

chapter 18|1 pages

Co-operation and trading

chapter 18a|1 pages

Rochdale Pioneers

chapter 18b|1 pages

Co-operative societies in 1860

part Three|51 pages

Class and conflict—conciliation

chapter 1|1 pages


chapter 1a|1 pages

Restlessness and responsibility

chapter 1b|1 pages

Poverty and pauperism

chapter 1c|2 pages

The social utility of philanthropy

chapter 1d|2 pages

Pauperism relieved by the poor

chapter 1e|1 pages

Charity, the chain of sympathy

chapter 1f|1 pages

The folly of philanthropy

chapter 1g|3 pages

The other view of charity

chapter 2|1 pages


chapter 2a|1 pages

The consequences of education

chapter 2b|1 pages

The economy of education

chapter 2c|2 pages

The myth of useful knowledge

chapter 2d|1 pages

Education as manipulation

chapter 2e|1 pages

An inspector's report, 1841

chapter 2f|3 pages

Education and social structure

chapter 3|1 pages


chapter 3a|2 pages

Faith and tranquillity

chapter 3b|1 pages

Faith and self-discipline

chapter 3c|2 pages


chapter 3d|1 pages

Religion and social responsibility

chapter 3e|3 pages

Christian socialism

chapter 4|1 pages

Politics or paternalism?

chapter 4a|3 pages

The Little Charter

chapter 4b|2 pages

The Parliamentary Reform Association

chapter 4c|2 pages

Freehold land society

chapter 4d|2 pages

In loco parentis

chapter 4e|1 pages

The assumption of responsibility

chapter 4f|2 pages

The new philanthropists