Originally published in 1973, this book shows that methods developed for the semantics of systems of formal logic can be successfully applied to problems about the semantics of natural languages; and, moreover, that such methods can take account of features of natural language which have often been thought incapable of formal treatment, such as vagueness, context dependence and metaphorical meaning.

Parts 1 and 2 set out a class of formal languages and their semantics. Parts 3 and 4 show that these formal languages are rich enought to be used in the precise description of natural languages.

Appendices describe some of the concepts discussed in the text.

chapter |10 pages


part |2 pages

Part I Propositional Languages

chapter 2|9 pages

Propositional Logics

chapter 3|11 pages

The Metaphysics of Propositions

chapter 4|15 pages

The Structure of Propositions

part |2 pages

Part II Categorial Languages

chapter 5|15 pages

Pure Categorial Languages

chapter 6|13 pages

Abstraction and λ-categorial Languages

chapter 7|16 pages

The Metaphysics of Categorial Languages

chapter 8|16 pages


part |2 pages

Part III English as a Categorial Language

chapter 9|24 pages

Some Parts of Speech

chapter 10|22 pages

More Parts of Speech

chapter 11|14 pages

Context-dependence in English

part |2 pages

Part IV English as a Natural Language

chapter 12|20 pages

Words and Morphemes

chapter 13|19 pages

Obtaining Natural Languages

chapter 14|13 pages

Meaning and Use