This volume makes available to English readers the best known and most frequently quoted study of industrial combination from the German point of view. There is an abundance of literature on the trusts, from economists who have lived close to that evolution, and the trusts, by their more challenging position, were for two decades the centre of the discussion which turned on what in industry was safe for democracy. Meanwhile, in Germany, the alternative of the cartel was having a less noticed a controversial development, until in Westphalia there was created, out of lower forms, a working model which was new and unique in the manner in which it related producers to each other and to the market. In only a few industries has this model been fully established; but it presents a rival type to the trusts, and places the problem of combination on a different basis of analysis and tendency. The distinction between these two forms may be a matter of industries, or of national law and psychology; or they may work together, the cartel being the general envelop within which fusions are created, the types are nevertheless distinct, so much so that ‘rationalization’, as a general term, rather denotes than defines them both. IN America, the Cartel is illegal, so that industry has sought its administrative solution in fusions; in England trusts and cartels co-exist; in Germany, they are interlaced, great trusts having their feet in one cartel, their shoulders in another and their heads in a third.

part 1|49 pages

The Nature and Origin of Cartels

chapter 2|9 pages

The Nature of Cartels

chapter 3|9 pages

The Origin of Cartels

chapter 4|7 pages

Scope of the Cartels in Germany

chapter 5|8 pages

Forms of Cartel Organization

chapter 6|5 pages

The Cartel Movement Outside Germany

part 2|52 pages

The Effects of the Cartels on Industry

part 3|62 pages

The Effects of the Cartels Upon the Consumer

chapter 14|8 pages

Effects Upon the Ultimate Consumer

chapter 17|14 pages

Effects on the Merchants

chapter 18|7 pages

Cartels and Trade Fluctuations

chapter 19|17 pages

International Cartels

part 4|59 pages

State Regulation of the Cartels

chapter 20|9 pages

Legal Regulation of the Cartels in Germany

chapter 21|5 pages

Legal Regulation in Other Countries

chapter 22|8 pages

Measures of Control

chapter 23|8 pages

Regulation of Exclusive Trading Contracts

chapter 24|9 pages

Possible Improvements in Cartel Law

chapter 25|10 pages

Tariff Policy

part 5|58 pages

Concerns and Amalgamations

chapter 30|11 pages

Examples of Concern-Formation

chapter 31|6 pages


chapter 32|8 pages

International Concerns

part 6|68 pages

Trusts or Monopolistic Concerns

chapter 34|8 pages

Nature and Origin of the Trusts

chapter 35|6 pages

A Few Examples of American Trusts

chapter 36|8 pages

The Effects of the Trusts

chapter 38|15 pages

Trusts in Germany and Other Countries

chapter 39|11 pages

Trust Regulation in America and Germany