In reviewing and reconsidering the intellectual history of scientism and anti-scientism, the authors assess the process of reasoning and prejudices of these contrasting viewpoints, while discussing the repercussions of scientific hegemony and its contemporary criticism.

As the second volume of a three-volume set that proposes to reconsider science and technology and explores how the philosophy of science and technology responds to an ever-changing world, this title focuses on ideological trends centering around scientism and anti-scientism since the 19th century. The six chapters look into the emergence of scientism, instrumental reason, scientific optimism, scientific pessimism, scientific crisis and irrationalism and finally the deconstruction of scientism. The authors provide insight into the connections and biases of these disparate views and critiques, explore the influences of hegemony of science and contemporary critique of science and evaluate the value of post-modernism and deconstructivism.

The volume will appeal to scholars and students interested in the philosophy of science and technology, the ideology of scientism and anti-scientism, modernism and postmodernism, Marxist philosophy and topics related to scientific culture.

Introduction  Part 1: Paradox of Scientism  1. The Rise of Scientism  2. The Expansion of Instrumental Reason  3. Optimism: The Omnipotence of Science and Technology  4. Pessimism: Hopeless "Les Fleurs du Mal"  Part 2: Origin of Anti-Scientism  5. Crisis of Science and the Burgeoning of Irrationalism  6. The Path of Deconstructing Scientism and Its Reflection