First Published in 1996. This book is an analysis of the different conceptions of citizenship displayed by elite republican rhetoric in the press when commenting on riots in New York City and in the City of Rio de Janeiro during the consolidation of the republican order in the United States and in Brazil.

Introduction I. Early 19th-Centuiy New York II. Late 19th-century Rio de Janeiro III. Republicanism in the United States IV. Republicanism in Brazil V. New York City Riots VI. Rio de Janeiro City Riots VII. Elites’Reaction in New York City VIII. Elites’ Reaction in Rio de Janeiro City, Conclusion