First published in 1998, this volume explored the recent growth in university-based commercial start-up companies as a means of applying research in industry and as an alternative method of funding. Blair and Hitchens melded the practical experiences of universities with more theoretical understandings of technology transfer to assess whether it is more effective for universities to make commercial use of their research themselves as opposed to licensing, whether this is an effective way to get research applied by industry and the economic implications of these decisions. Drawing on the experiences of 25 universities, of which 18 are in the UK and Ireland, and including a detailed study of the QUBIS Group from Queen’s University of Belfast, the authors explore universities’ deliberate commercial exploitation of their research through university spin-off companies, the potential stresses on staff who are simultaneously academics and entrepreneurs along with universities’ attitudes to the practice and possible managerial strategies.

chapter 1|8 pages


chapter 4|22 pages

R&D as an Indicator of Innovation

chapter 5|10 pages

University/Industry Collaboration

chapter 6|14 pages

University Companies

chapter 7|46 pages

Critical Issues

chapter 9|14 pages

Characterisation of University Companies

chapter 10|14 pages

Questions and Issues to be Addressed

chapter 11|10 pages

Emerging Structures

chapter 12|14 pages

Case-Study - The QUBIS Group

chapter 13|22 pages

Performance of University Companies

chapter 14|20 pages

Questionnaires to Small Non-University Firms

chapter 16|22 pages

Summary, Conclusions and Policy Implications