This book explores the global impact of the Syrian conflict, and the roles of Russia, Iran and the US in its wake. It looks closely at origins of political turmoil in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region by analysing the growing influence of Russia and Iran – militarily, economically and diplomatically – juxtaposed against US defense and national interests.

The book:

  • challenges the conventional scholarship to show how non-democratic states such as Russia, Iran and China exhibit a consistent strategic intent in their foreign-policy-making;
  • underlines the convergence of Syrian foreign policy with Russia’s (the USSR before 1989) and Iran’s regional outlook post-1979;
  • takes stock of the shifts in the US foreign policy in MENA in light of new realities.

Drawing on detailed fieldwork and archival material, including National Security Archival documents, this book is a tour de force in understanding global politics and contemporary history. It will be indispensable to scholars and researchers of politics and international relations, political theory, foreign policy, Middle East studies, and peace and conflict studies.

chapter 1|10 pages


Syria against all odds

chapter 2|20 pages

Resisting the powerful

Iran and Syria post-1979

chapter 4|16 pages

Russia and Syria since 1956

An alliance built on defiance

chapter 5|26 pages

Russia’s intervention in Syria

chapter 6|19 pages

Russia, China and Iran

A changing world order

chapter 7|16 pages

The United States

Implications of new realities in MENA

chapter 8|25 pages