In this detailed survey of European communist systems. Dr. Hazan examines the formal structure of East European politics and the functions of party organizations as the true centers of power. Drawing on extensive primary sources and illustrations from the most recent period of Eastern Europe’s history, he analyzes the role of the entire government infrastructure in consolidating the strength of the Communist party. He also focuses on party congresses, internal elections, organizational and personnel changes, and foreign visits against the background of the all-encompassing network of ritual that governs the political process.

chapter 1|7 pages


chapter 2|24 pages


chapter 3|27 pages

The National Assemblies

chapter 6|37 pages

The Congress

chapter 7|26 pages

The Leaders

chapter 8|38 pages

Church and State

chapter 9|16 pages

The Judiciary

chapter 10|19 pages

The Ritual

chapter 11|55 pages

The Auxiliary Organizations

chapter 12|6 pages