Marc Raeff is one of the truly outstanding scholars of Russian history. This volume offers a sampling of the best essays from his prolific, forty-year career; they span the history of Russia from the late seventeenth to the late nineteenth century. In these essays, Raeff considers the problems of imperial Russian politics and administration, analyzes Russia's intellectual and social history as it relates to the governance of the multiethnic empire, and places the institutional and intellectual history of Russia in the context of other Western and Central European developments. Raeff's essays offer a sketch of the generation that came of age in the era of the Napoleonic Wars and the ensuing attempts at constitutional reform—the generation that laid the foundations of the modern Russian national consciousness. He explores modernization reform and liberalism in the second half of the nineteenth century, the acquisition and incorporation of Russia's multiethnic population, and the politics and administration of the reigns of Peter III and Catherine II. He examines how the Russian élites assimilated values from the Western and Central European Enlightenment and assesses the important intellectual and ideological effects the Enlightenment had on the nation. The volume concludes with a comparative look at the process of Westernization, focusing on issues of literacy, state leadership, and the role of the intelligentsia. Many of these seminal essays are long out of print and hard to find. This timely volume makes Marc Raeff's insights readily available as Russia reemerges as a nation-state facing "new" challenges that are often deeply rooted in its past.

chapter |6 pages


chapter One|15 pages

Russia After the Emancipation

Views of a Gentleman-Farmer

chapter Two|10 pages

A Reactionary Liberal

M. N. Katkov

chapter Three|10 pages

Some Reflections on Russian Liberalism

chapter Four|23 pages

Russian Youth on the Eve of Romanticism

Andrei I. Turgenev and His Circle

chapter Five|11 pages

At the Origins of a Russian National Consciousness

Eighteenth Century Roots and Napolenic Wars

chapter Six|12 pages

The Russian Autocracy and Its Officials 1

chapter Seven|28 pages


to Plans for Political Reform in Imperial Russia, 1730–1905

chapter Eleven|32 pages

In the Imperial Manner

chapter Thirteen|21 pages

The Empress and the Vinerian Professor

Catherine II’s Projects of Government Reforms and Blackstone’s Commentaries

chapter Fourteen|34 pages

Pugachev’s Rebellion

chapter Sixteen|7 pages

Muscovy Looks West

chapter Eighteen|25 pages

The Well-Ordered Police State and the Development of Modernity in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Europe

An Attempt at a Comparative Approach

chapter Nineteen|14 pages

Transfiguration and Modernization

The Paradoxes of Social Disciplining, Paedagogical Leadership, and the Enlightenment in 18th Century Russia