Published in 1968: The author not only pioneered modern-style village surveys in both England and India, but also modern style urban surveys and studies in India. There he broke new ground in his remarkable first-hand researches on agricultural labour, village economics, depressed or "Untouchable" classes in town and country, and human and industrial relations in India’s first steel town, Jamshedpur. In the text of this book we reproduce thirty-five of the author’s papers – in whole, in part, or in summary.

Part 1: Approach and Outlook 1.  The Philosophy of a Man of Science  2. The Social Study of a People  3. How to Conduct an Economic Survey  4. The Investigation of Economic Conditions in Underdeveloped Countries  Part 2: Village Studies in India and England  5. Life in an Agricultural Village in England  6. Note on the Diet of Tea Garden Coolies in Upper Assam and its Nutritive Value  7. The ‘Mahars’ of a Deccan Village (Saswad)  8. The Economics of Deccan Village  9. The Effects of Rise of Prices on Rural Prosperity  10. India in the Sixteenth Century 11. A Deccan Village under Peshwas  12. Foreword to Resurvey of a Deccan Village  Part 3: Town Studies in India  13. Calcutta Drink Shops (1903-04)  14. The Untouchable Classes of an Indian City (Poona ) 15. The Housing of the Untouchable Classes in an Indian City (Poona)  16. The Supply of Milk to Indian Cities  17. The Provision of Milch Cattle Stables in Bombay  Part 4: The Social Setting of Agricultural Development in India 18. The Lines of Development of Indian Agriculture  19. Royal Commission on Agriculture in India: Dr Mann’s Written Evidence (1927)  20. The Agriculture of India  21. Note on the Plan of Economic Development for India  22. Village Betterment in the New India and Pakistan  23. The General Report of the All India Rural Credit Survey  24. The Significance of Land Transfers  25. The Economic Results and Possibilities of Irrigation  26. The Central Mechanized Farm at Suratgarh Report 1956-58  Part 5: The USSR and the Middle East  27. The Collective Farm System in Russia  28. Agricultural Improvement in Turkey  29. The New Agricultural Land Law in Turkey  30. Wheat in the Middle East  31. Millets in the Middle East  Part 6: Agricultural Science and Method  32. Rab: A Unique System of Cultivating Rise in Western India  33. The Early History of the Tea Industry in North-east India  34. The Indian Tea Industry in its Scientific Aspects  35. The Woburn Experimental Station (1876-1956)