Although much has been written about development assistance to the Third World, nearly all the attention has focused on U.S. programs and policy. The important and growing commitment of European countries--which now collectively account for over half of all development assistance provided by the industrialized nations--has been virtually ignored. European nations, like the u.s., support in principle a â€œbasic needsâ€ focus in their assistance programs, but the strategies they employ reveal a variety of styles and technical approaches, many of which could be useful in improving U.S. aid programs. This study describes and analyzes the development assistance programs of the five major European donors: France, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Sweden. Drawing on primary sources and interviews with representatives of the various assistance agencies and with outside experts, Dr. Arnold describes each country’s program in terms of three general areas: the evolution of its philosophy and overall policy goals, the organizational structure of the government institutions concerned with development assistance (including the relationship of these institutions to legislative and other policymaking bodies), and the content and procedures of the assistance programs.