Originally published in 1967. An introduction to the literature of nonstandard logic, in particular to those nonstandard logics known as many-valued logics. Part I expounds and discusses implicational calculi, modal logics and many-valued logics and their associated calculi. Part II considers the detailed development of various many-valued calculi, and some of the important metathereoms which have been proved for them. Applications of the calculi to problems in the philosophy are also surveyed. This work combines criticism with exposition to form a comprehensive but concise survey of the field.

Part 1: Nonstandard Logics 1. Implicational Calculi 2. Modal Logics 3. Many-valued Logics 4. Nonstandard Calculi Part 2: Many-valued Calculi 5. Lukasiewicz-Tarski Propositional Calculi 6. Other Many-valued Calculi 7. Applications of Many-valued Calculi