This book, first published in 1979, examines the little-studied forerunners of the Russian revolutionary movement - the Russian section of the First International. It looks at the social democratic and Marxist Russians in the International, as well as examining the complex relations between the terrorist Sergei Nechaev and Marx's friends, as well as tracing the activities of Michael Bakunin. It also analyses, for the first time in English, the activities of the Russian revolutionaries in the Paris Commune. It integrates early Russian social democracy into the larger context of European socialist and working-class movements.