Twentieth and twenty-first century communism is a failed experiment in social engineering that needlessly killed approximately 60 million people and perhaps tens of millions more. These high crimes against humanity constitute a Red Holocaust that exceeds the combined carnage of the French Reign of Terror, Ha Shoah, Showa Japan's Asian holocaust, and all combat deaths in World War I and II. This fascinating book investigates high crimes against humanity in the Soviet Union, eastern and central Europe, North Korea, China, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia 1929-2009, and compares the results with Ha Shoah and the Japanese Asian Holocaust.

As in other studies, blame is ascribed to political, ideological and personal causes, but special emphasis is given to internal contradictions in Marx's utopian model as well as Stalinist and post-Stalinist transition systems concocted to realize communist ends. This faulty economic engineering forms a bridge to the larger issue of communism's historical failure.

The book includes:

- a comprehensive study of the transcommunist holocaust

- a judicial assessment of holocaust culpability and special pleadings

- an obituary for Stalinism everywhere except North Korea, and a death watch for contemporary communism in China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, North Korea, Cuba and Nepal

- a comparative assessment of totalitarian high crimes against humanity

- a call for memory as a defense against recurrent economic, racial and ethnic holocausts

The book will be useful to undergraduate and higher level students interested in Russian history, Stalism, communism, North and South Korean economic performance and international affairs.

Steven Rosefielde is a Professor of Economics at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and a member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences.

chapter |10 pages


part |2 pages

Part I Red Holocaust: First Wave

chapter 1|4 pages


chapter 2|18 pages

20 Million Souls

chapter 3|18 pages

Collectivization and Terror-Starvation

chapter 4|10 pages

The Great Terror

chapter 5|15 pages


chapter 6|7 pages

Ethnic Cleansing

chapter 7|6 pages

Captive Nations

chapter 8|8 pages

Sword and Torch

part |2 pages

Part II The Second Wave

chapter 9|14 pages

Overlapping Empires

chapter 10|8 pages

Killing Fields

part |2 pages

Part III Liberalization

chapter 11|8 pages

The Sixth Commandment

part |2 pages

Part IV Terror-Command Economy

chapter 12|9 pages


chapter 13|8 pages

Asian Terror-Command

chapter 14|8 pages

Terror-Free Command

chapter 15|11 pages

Illusion of Progress

part |2 pages

Part V Red Holocaust Denial

chapter 16|11 pages

Corpus Delicti

chapter 17|10 pages

Presumption of Innocence

chapter 18|8 pages

Justifiable Homicide

chapter 19|4 pages

Beyond Good and Evil

chapter 20|9 pages

Clemency and Retribution

part |2 pages

Part VI Hitler’s and Hirohito’s Holocausts

chapter 21|14 pages

Genocide and Lethal Labor Exploitation

part |2 pages

Part VII After the Second Wave

chapter 22|6 pages