The unique Japanese banking system has contributed greatly to Japan’s post-war economic advance by investing aggressively in industry and by supporting close government-business relations. The banking sector might not have come to assume such a significant role, however, had American efforts to reform Japanese finance during the Occupation (1945-52) been successful. How Japan’s banking system maintained continuity of development and avoided the occupiers’ attempts at "democratisation" and "Americanisation" is the subject of this book. It explores why the Americans were committed to reform, the reasons they failed and how important the maintenance of the financial status quo was to the subsequent development of Japan’s "miracle" economy.