Before World War II, the great majority of practicing doctors in England and Wales were general practitioners. They performed their own surgery, and were accustomed to treating a wide variety of illnesses and symptoms. Specialists were few in number, tended to practice in large towns, and were often associated with major hospitals. But rapidly changing medical institutions and services in the twentieth century have compelled specialization even among more modest doctors and hospitals.

chapter |6 pages


part |2 pages

Part I. The Professional Background

chapter 2|12 pages

Medical Practice 1858-1914

chapter 3|15 pages

Development of the Specialties 1914-1939

part |2 pages

Part II. Specialism, Generalism, and the National Health Service Act

part |2 pages

Part III. Emerging Problems: The National Health Service 1948-1961

chapter 9|12 pages

Determination of Incomes

chapter 10|14 pages

Problems of Hospital Medical Staffing

part |2 pages

Part IV. The Impact Of the National Health Service on Medical Practice: The 1960s

part |2 pages

Part V. The Medical Profession

part |2 pages

Part VI. Specialization: Problems at the Mid-1960s

chapter 22|13 pages

Problems in Medical Education and Training

chapter 23|17 pages

Specialties in the 1960s: New Dimensions

chapter 24|16 pages

Review and Prospect