Originally published in 1989 this study examines some new facets in the development of the iron industry in the USA between 1839 and 1921 through the study of an individaul form, namely the Thoms Iron Company, one of the leading merchant furnace companies. It charts the  end of the anthracite iron age and the changes which brought about the advent of open-hearth steel and integrated steel works. The book discusses the problems the managers of the firm faced with the appearance of industrial innovations which tended to undermine their firm's very existence and provided a new set of optimal conditions necessary for the survival of the firm. It provides a clear understanding of the destructive forces of industrial innovation and the place of creative entrepreneurship in the survival of the firm.

chapter I|5 pages


chapter II|42 pages

Origins of The Anthracite Pig Iron Industry

chapter VI|55 pages

The Age of Anthracite Pig Iron, 1855–1875

chapter VII|57 pages

The Thomas Iron Company, 1856–1875

chapter VIII|56 pages

Iron To Steel, 1875–1919

chapter IX|43 pages

The Growth of Competition, 1876–1893

chapter X|41 pages

Old Paths

chapter XI|36 pages

The Last Years