This volume offers a new translation of Plutarch’s three treatises on animals—On the Cleverness of Animals, Whether Beasts Are Rational, and On Eating Meat—accompanied by introductions and explanatory commentaries.

The accompanying commentaries are designed not only to elucidate the meaning of the Greek text, but to call attention to Plutarch’s striking anticipations of arguments central to current philosophical and ethological discourse in defense of the position that non-human animals have intellectual and emotional dimensions that make them worthy of inclusion in the moral universe of human beings.

Plutarch’s Three Treatises on Animals will be of interest to students of ancient philosophy and natural science, and to all readers who wish to explore the history of thought on human–non-human animal relations, in which the animal treatises of Plutarch hold a pivotal position.

Preface; Whether Land or Sea Animals Have More Intelligence, or On the Cleverness of Animals: De sollertia animalium; Introduction; Translation; Whether Beasts Are Rational, or Gryllus: Bruta animalia ratione uti; Introduction; Translation; On Eating Meat: De esu carnium; Introduction; Treatise I: Translation; Treatise II: Translation; Bibliography; Index