All Basque interpretations of national power have resulted in an uneasy mix of often fragmented and conflicting territorial identifications.

Basques can identify themselves with France, Spain or an imagined Basque nation state. Territory and Terror confronts the imagined and actual territorial dimensions of nationalism, shedding new light on the Basque conflict.

The study provides a rich description of territoriality analysed from a comparative perspective and explores the relation between territoriality and regional differences in conflict intensity. It supplies an account of the oft-overlooked internal struggles between Basques, arguing that overestimation of Basque nationalism as the ideological force behind the conflict often leads to a disregard of the identification of many with France or Spain. In addition, the author investigates the conflicts between Basque nationalists themselves over key issues such as terrorist activity.

Territory and Terror will appeal to students and researchers of nationalism and territoriality, in particular to those with an interest in the Basque country.

chapter 1|18 pages


chapter 2|22 pages

The French-Basque experience

How Basques became French

chapter 3|36 pages

The Spanish-Basque experience

A case of weak nation-state building

chapter 4|20 pages

Euskal Herria

Rhetoric of commonness versus uncommon practice

chapter 5|29 pages

Basque nationalism

A recent and modest phenomenon

chapter 6|50 pages

Euskadi as a weak proto-state

The fragmentation of Basque society

chapter 7|29 pages

The spatial dimension of violence

Beyond the fracture lines

chapter 8|20 pages

Conflict solutions

Past and future scenarios

chapter 9|8 pages