This new handbook provides a comprehensive and multidisciplinary overview of the theoretical and empirical aspects of state recognition in international politics.

Although the recognition of states plays a central role in shaping global politics, it remains an under-researched and widely dispersed subject. Coherently and innovatively structured, the handbook brings together a group of international scholars who examine the most important theoretical and comparative perspectives on state recognition, including debates about pathways to secession and self-determination, the broad range of actors and strategies that shape the recognition of states and a significant number of contemporary case studies.

The handbook is organised into four key sections:

  • Theoretical and normative perspectives
  • Pathways to independent statehood
  • Actors, forms and the process of state recognition
  • Case studies of contemporary state recognition

This handbook will be of great interest to students of foreign policy, international relations, international law, comparative politics and area studies.

Chapter 19 of this book is freely available as a downloadable Open Access PDF under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license https://www.routledge.com/Routledge-Handbook-of-State-Recognition/Visoka-Doyle-Newman/p/book/9780815354871

chapter 1|22 pages


Statehood and recognition in world politics
ByGëzim Visoka, Edward Newman, John Doyle

part I|2 pages

Theoretical and normative perspectives

chapter 2|12 pages

Theories of state recognition

ByRowan Nicholson, Thomas D. Grant

chapter 3|11 pages

The evolution of state recognition

ByMikulas Fabry

chapter 4|11 pages

Recognition of states in international law

ByPeter Radan

chapter 5|12 pages

Self-determination and the recognition of states

ByCostas Laoutides

chapter 6|11 pages

The ethics of state recognition

ByChris Naticchia

chapter 7|17 pages

Power politics and state recognition

ByMilena Sterio

chapter 8|10 pages

International recognition and human rights treaties

ByRalph Wilde

chapter 9|14 pages

State recognition in a transitional international order

ByEdward Newman

part II|2 pages

Pathways to independent statehood

chapter 10|13 pages

Pathways to independence and recognition

ByJames Summers

chapter 11|10 pages

Dynamics of secession and state birth

ByRyan D. Griffiths

chapter 12|13 pages

Referendums on independence and secession

ByMatt Qvortrup

chapter 13|13 pages

Recognition of unilateral secession

ByAleksandar Pavković

chapter 14|15 pages

Remedial secession

ByMichel Seymour

part III|2 pages

Actors, forms and the process of state recognition

chapter 15|14 pages

Bilateral recognition of states

ByBrad R. Roth

chapter 16|15 pages

Recognition of governments

ByM.J. Peterson

chapter 17|11 pages

Statehood and collective recognition

Practice of states and UN organs
ByJure Vidmar

chapter 18|10 pages

Collective non-recognition of states

ByNina Caspersen

chapter 19|15 pages

Engagement without recognition

ByBruno Coppieters
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chapter 20|14 pages

Parliamentary recognition

ByChiara Loda, John Doyle

chapter 21|12 pages

Recognition of states by regional organisations

The European Union’s contested experience
ByGëzim Visoka, Edward Newman

chapter 22|13 pages

The international court of justice and the recognition of states

ByGentian Zyberi

chapter 23|11 pages

The counter-diplomacy of state recognition

ByJames Ker-Lindsay

chapter 24|10 pages

State fragility and international recognition

ByNicolas Lemay-Hébert

chapter 25|17 pages

The derecognition of states

ByGëzim Visoka

chapter 26|12 pages

Contested states and their everyday quest for recognition

ByDimitris Bouris, Irene Fernández-Molina

part IV|16 pages

Case studies of contemporary state recognition

chapter 27|16 pages


ByYaser Alashqar

chapter 28|13 pages


ByTimothy S. Rich, Andi Dahmer

chapter 29|15 pages

Western Sahara

ByIrene Fernández-Molina, Matthew Porges

chapter 30|11 pages

South Sudan

ByWalt Kilroy

chapter 31|15 pages


ByGëzim Visoka

chapter 32|13 pages


ByScott Pegg

chapter 33|16 pages

Abkhazia and South Ossetia

ByDonnacha Ó Beacháin

chapter 34|12 pages

Transdniestria and Northern Cyprus

ByDaria Isachenko

chapter 35|15 pages

Brexit and the question of Irish unity

ByEileen Connolly, John Doyle

chapter 36|22 pages

Towards a critical agenda on state recognition

ByGëzim Visoka