*** Featuring a foreword by Pritzker Prize Winner Shigeru Ban ***

Bringing together experts from research and practice, Shell Structures for Architecture: Form Finding and Optimization presents contemporary design methods for shell and gridshell structures, covering form-finding and structural optimization techniques. It introduces architecture and engineering practitioners and students to structural shells and provides computational techniques to develop complex curved structural surfaces, in the form of mathematics, computer algorithms, and design case studies.

• Part I introduces the topic of shells, tracing the ancient relationship between structural form and forces, the basics of shell behaviour, and the evolution of form-finding and structural optimization techniques.

• Part II familiarizes the reader with form-finding techniques to explore expressive structural geometries, covering the force density method, thrust network analysis, dynamic relaxation and particle-spring systems.

• Part III focuses on shell shape and topology optimization, and provides a deeper understanding of gradient-based methods and meta-heuristic techniques.

• Part IV contains precedent studies of realised shells and gridshells describing their innovative design and construction methods.

chapter |4 pages


part |2 pages

Part I Shells for architecture

chapter 1|8 pages

Exploring shell forms

ByJohn Ochsendorf, Philippe Block

chapter 2|6 pages

Shaping forces

ByLaurent Ney, Sigrid Adriaenssens

chapter 3|12 pages

What is a shell?

ByChris Williams

chapter 4|12 pages

Physical modelling and form finding

ByBill Addis

chapter 5|12 pages

Computational form finding and optimization

ByKai-Uwe Bletzinger, Ekkehard Ramm

part |2 pages

Part II Form finding

chapter 7|18 pages

Thrust network analysis: design of a cut-stone masonry vault

ByPhilippe Block, Lorenz Lachauer, Matthias Rippmann

chapter 8|14 pages

Dynamic relaxation: design of a strained timber gridshell

BySigrid Adriaenssens, Mike Barnes, Richard Harris, Chris Williams

chapter 9|12 pages

Particle-spring systems: design of a cantilevering concrete shell

ByShajay Bhooshan, Diederik Veenendaal, Philippe Block

chapter 10|16 pages

Comparison of form-finding methods

ByDiederik Veenendaal, Philippe Block

chapter 11|10 pages

Steering of form

ByAxel Kilian

part |2 pages

Part III Structural optimization

chapter 12|14 pages

Nonlinear force density method: constraints on force and geometry

ByKlaus Linkwitz, Diederik Veenendaal

chapter 13|14 pages

Best-fit thrust network analysis: rationalization of freeform meshes

ByTom Van Mele, Daniele Panozzo, Olga Sorkine-Hornung, Philippe Block

chapter 14|10 pages

Discrete topology optimization: connectivity for gridshells

ByJames N. Richardson, Sigrid Adriaenssens, Rajan Filomeno Coelho, Philippe Bouillard

chapter 16|16 pages

Eigenshells: structural patterns on modal forms

ByPanagiotis Michalatos, Sawako Kaijima

chapter 17|14 pages

Homogenization method: distribution of material densities

ByIrmgard Lochner-Aldinger, Axel Schumacher

chapter 18|12 pages

Computational morphogenesis: design of freeform surfaces

ByAlberto Pugnale, Tomás Méndez Echenagucia, Mario Sassone

part |2 pages

Part IV Precedents

chapter 20|12 pages

Félix Candela and Heinz Isler: a comparison of two structural artists

ByMaria E. Moreyra Garlock, David P. Billington