This edited collection explores the genesis of scientific conceptions of race and their accompanying impact on the taxonomy of human collections internationally as evidenced in ethnographic museums, world fairs, zoological gardens, international colonial exhibitions and ethnic shows. A deep epistemological change took place in Europe in this domain toward the end of the eighteenth century, producing new scientific representations of race and thereby triggering a radical transformation in the visual economy relating to race and racial representation and its inscription in the body. These practices would play defining roles in shaping public consciousness and the representation of “otherness” in modern societies. The Invention of Race provides contextualization that is often lacking in contemporary discussions on diversity, multiculturalism and race.

chapter |13 pages


The Invention of Race—Scientific and Popular Representations of Race from Linnaeus to the Ethnic Shows
ByNicolas Bancel, Thomas David, Dominic Thomas

part I|69 pages

The Genealogy of Race in the Eighteenth Century

chapter 1|16 pages

Biologization of Race and Racialization of the Human

Bernier, Buffon, Linnaeus
ByThierry Hoquet

chapter 2|15 pages

Cranial Varieties in the Human and Orangutan Species

ByMiriam Claude Meijer

chapter 3|12 pages

The Creation of the “Negro” at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century

Petrus Camper, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, and Julien-Joseph Virey
ByFrancesco Panese

chapter 4|8 pages

Panel and Sequence

Classifications and Associations in Scientific Illustrations of the Human Races (1770–1830)
ByMartial Guédron

chapter 5|16 pages

Christoph Meiners’ “New Science” (1747–1810)

ByBritta Rupp-Eisenreich

part II|98 pages

The Internationalization and Institutionalization of Racial Anthropology in the Nineteenth Century

chapter 7|17 pages

“We Can’t Help Laughing”

Physical Anthropology in Belgium and Congo (1882–1914)
ByMaarten Couttenier

chapter 9|15 pages

Discourses of Race in Imperial Russia (1830–1914)

ByVera Tolz

chapter 10|13 pages

The Reception of the Idea of Race in East Asia

ByGérard Siary

chapter 11|12 pages

The Anthropological Society of Tokyo and the Ainu

Racial Classifications, Prehistory, and National Identity (1880–1910)
ByArnaud Nanta

chapter 12|13 pages

Warfare, Commerce, and Science

Racial Biology in South Africa
ByPatrick Harries

part III|108 pages

The Transcription and Exhibition of Race

chapter 13|10 pages

From Cabinets of Curiosity to the “Hottentot Venus”

A Long History of Human Zoos
ByGilles Boëtsch, Pascal Blanchard

chapter 14|14 pages

Race, Showmen, Disability, and the Freak Show

ByRobert Bogdan

chapter 15|13 pages

In Sight and Sound with the Other Senses All Around

Racial Hierarchies at America’s World’s Fairs
ByRobert W. Rydell

chapter 16|11 pages

Human Exhibitions at World’s Fairs

Between Scientific Categorization and Exoticism? The French Colonial Presence at Midway Plaisance, World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
ByCatherine Hodeir

chapter 17|14 pages

Exhibiting Haiti

Questioning Race at the World’s Columbian Exposition, 1893
ByCharles Forsdick

chapter 18|12 pages

Races on Exhibit at the 1904 St. Louis Anthropology Days

ByFabrice Delsahut

chapter 19|12 pages

Eskimos in the Museum, Pygmy in a Cage, Social Darwinism Everywhere

ByHerman Lebovics

chapter 21|10 pages

Beyond Objectivity

Anthropometric Photography and Visual Culture
ByChristian Joschke