The ‘outdoors’ is a physical and ideological space in which people engage with their environment, but it is also an important vehicle for learning and for leisure. The Routledge Handbook of Outdoor Studies is the first book to attempt to define and survey the multi-disciplinary set of approaches that constitute the broad field of outdoor studies, including outdoor recreation, outdoor education, adventure education, environmental studies, physical culture studies and leisure studies. It reflects upon the often haphazard development of outdoor studies as a discipline, critically assesses current knowledge in outdoor studies, and identifies further opportunities for future research in this area.

With a broader sweep than any other book yet published on the topic, this handbook traces the philosophical and conceptual contours of the discipline, as well as exploring key contemporary topics and debates, and identifying important issues in education and professional practice. It examines the cultural, social and political contexts in which people experience the outdoors, including perspectives on outdoor studies from a wide range of countries, providing the perfect foundation for any student, researcher, educator or outdoors practitioner looking to deepen their professional knowledge of the outdoors and our engagement with the world around us.

chapter |4 pages


ByBarbara Humberstone, Heather Prince, Karla A. Henderson

part 1|74 pages

Constructs and theoretical concepts

chapter |4 pages


ByHeather Prince

chapter 2|10 pages

From ‘Erlebnis’ to adventure

A view on the German Erlebnispädagogik
ByPeter Becker

chapter 3|10 pages

Environmental concerns and outdoor studies

Nature as fosterer
ByJohan Öhman, Klas Sandell

chapter 4|9 pages

Outdoor studies and a sound philosophy of experience

ByJohn Quay, Jayson Seaman

chapter 5|10 pages

Healing the split head of outdoor recreation and outdoor education

Revisiting Indigenous knowledge from multiple perspectives
ByPhilip Mullins, Gregory Lowan-Trudeau, Karen Fox

chapter 6|10 pages

Health and wellbeing benefits of activities in the outdoors

ByCathryn Carpenter, Nevin Harper

chapter 7|10 pages

Shifting perspectives on research in the outdoors

ByEmily Coates, Alan Hockley, Barbara Humberstone, Ina Stan

part 2|72 pages

Formal education in outdoor studies

chapter |4 pages


ByHeather Prince

chapter 8|10 pages

The primacy of place in education in outdoor settings

ByGreg Mannion, Jonathan Lynch

chapter 9|8 pages

Scandinavian early childhood education

Spending time in the outdoors
ByEllen Beate Hansen Sandseter, Trond Løge Hagen

chapter 10|10 pages

Supporting early learning outdoors in the UK

Culture clash and concord
BySue Waite

chapter 11|8 pages

Curricular outdoor learning in Scotland

From practice to policy
ByBeth Christie, Pete Higgins, Robbie Nicol

chapter 12|10 pages

Teaching trainee teachers about outdoor education

ByErik Backman

chapter 13|10 pages

Pedagogic practice in higher education in the UK

ByTim Stott

chapter 14|10 pages

Formal curricular initiatives and evaluation in the UK

ByHeather Prince, David Exeter

part 3|118 pages

Non-formal education and training in/for/about outdoor studies

chapter |6 pages


ByKarla A. Henderson

chapter 15|9 pages

Careers in the outdoors

ByLinda Allin, Amanda West

chapter 16|10 pages

Beyond training for tolerance in outdoor experiential education

More than just leadership
ByMary Breunig, Elyse Rylander

chapter 17|11 pages

Professional accreditation in the UK outdoor sector

ByHeather Brown, Ian Harris, Su Porter

chapter 18|9 pages

Certification in outdoor programmes

ByAram Attarian

chapter 19|9 pages

Ethical considerations in outdoor studies research

ByLetty Ashworth, Lucy Maynard, Karen Stuart

chapter 20|10 pages

Adventure education

Crucible, catalyst and inexact
ByJim Sibthorp, Dan Richmond

chapter 21|10 pages

Challenge course programming

On the rise or in compromise?
ByMark Wagstaff

chapter 22|9 pages

The camp experience

Learning through the outdoors
ByM. Deborah Bialeschki, Stephen M. Fine, Troy Bennett

chapter 23|8 pages

Sail training

ByKen McCulloch

chapter 24|7 pages

Forest School in the United Kingdom

BySara Knight

chapter 25|9 pages

Developing therapeutic outdoor practice

Adventure therapy
ByKaye Richards

chapter 26|9 pages

Reviewing and reflection

Connecting people to experiences
ByRoger Greenaway, Clifford E. Knapp

part 4|64 pages

International voices and cultural interpretations

chapter |6 pages


ByKarla A. Henderson

chapter 27|11 pages

The inclusion of outdoor education in the formal school curriculum

Singapore’s journey
BySusanna Ho, Matthew Atencio, Yuen Sze Michelle Tan, Chew Ting Ching

chapter 28|9 pages


Nature-friendly adventures for all
ByKirsti Pedersen Gurholt

chapter 29|10 pages

Turistika activities and games, dramaturgy, and the Czech outdoor experience

ByAndrew J. Martin, Ivana Turčová, Jan Neuman

chapter 30|9 pages

Outdoor studies in Japan

ByTaito Okamura

chapter 31|9 pages

Using outdoor adventure to contribute to peace

The case of Kenya
ByShikuku W. Ooko, Helen N. Muthomi

chapter 32|8 pages

Outdoor activities in Brazilian educational camps

ByMarcelo Fadori Soares Palhares, Sandro Carnicelli

part 5|86 pages

Social and environmental justice and outdoor studies

chapter |6 pages


ByBarbara Humberstone

chapter 33|10 pages

Race, ethnicity and outdoor studies

Trends, challenges and forward momentum
ByNina S. Roberts

chapter 34|9 pages

Equality and inclusion in the outdoors

Connecting with nature from an Indian perspective
ByDi Collins, Latha Anantharaman

chapter 35|9 pages

Gender in outdoor studies

ByKaren Warren

chapter 36|9 pages

Age and the outdoors

ByMike Boyes

chapter 37|10 pages

Disability and the outdoors

Some considerations for inclusion
ByJohn Crosbie

chapter 38|10 pages

Spirituality and the outdoors

ByPaul Heintzman

chapter 39|11 pages

Outdoor education, environment and sustainability

Youth, society and environment
ByGeoff Cooper

chapter 40|10 pages

Land management and outdoor recreation in the UK

ByLois Mansfield

part 6|92 pages

Transdisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and exploring outdoor studies

chapter |4 pages


ByBarbara Humberstone

chapter 41|10 pages

Experiential learning

Towards a multidisciplinary perspective
ByColin Beard

chapter 42|9 pages

Enskilment and place-responsiveness in outdoor studies

Ways of life
ByMike Brown, Brian Wattchow

chapter 43|11 pages

Outdoor education, safety and risk in the light of serious accidents

ByAndrew Brookes

chapter 44|8 pages

Challenges in adventure sports coaching

ByLoel Collins, Dave Collins

chapter 45|9 pages

Adventure tourism

ByPaul Beedie

chapter 46|10 pages


Outdoor pedagogy at the periphery
ByPatrick T. Maher

chapter 47|9 pages

Bourdieu and alpine mountaineering

The distinction of high peaks, clean lines and pure style
ByJohn Telford, Simon Beames

chapter 48|10 pages

The archaeology of the outdoor movement and the German development

In the beginning was the curiosity about the sublime
ByPeter Becker, Gudrun Vill-Debney