Over the last four decades computers and the internet have become an intrinsic part of all our lives, but this speed of development has left related philosophical enquiry behind. Featuring the work of computer scientists and philosophers, these essays provide an overview of an exciting new area of philosophy that is still taking shape.

Introduction: Philosophy's Relevance in Computing and Information Science - Ruth Hagengruber and Uwe V Riss Part I: Philosophy of Computing and Information 1 The Fourth Revolution in our Self-Understanding - Luciano Floridi 2 Information Transfer as a Metaphor - Jakob Krebs 3 With Aristotle towards a Differentiated Concept of Information? - Uwe Voigt 4 The Influence of Philosophy on the Understanding of Computing and Information - Klaus Fuchs-Kittowski Part II: Complexity and System Theory 5 The Emergence of Self-Conscious Systems: From Symbolic AI to Embodied Robotics - Klaus Mainzer 6 Artificial Intelligence as a New Metaphysical Project - Aziz F Zambak Part III: Ontology 7 The Relevance of Philosophical Ontology to Information and Computer Science - Barry Smith 8 Ontology, its Origins and its Meaning in Information Science - Jens Kohne 9 Smart Questions: Steps towards an Ontology of Questions and Answers - Ludwig Jaskolla and Matthias Rugel Part IV: Knowledge Representation 10 Sophisticated Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Requires Philosophy - Selmer Bringsjord, Micah Clark and Joshua Taylor 11 On Frames and Theory-Elements of Structuralism - Holger Andreas 12 Ontological Complexity and Human Culture - David J Saab and Frederico Fonseca Part V: Action Theory 13 Knowledge and Action Between Abstraction and Concretion - Uwe V Riss 14 Action-Directing Construction of Reality in Product Creation Using Social Software: Employing Philosophy to Solve Real-World Problems - Kai Holzweissig and Jens Kruger 15 An Action-Theory Based Treatment of Temporal Individuals - Tillmann Pross 16 Four Rules for Classifying Social Entities - Ludger Jansen Part VI: Info-Computationalism 17 Info-Computationalism and Philosophical Aspects of Research in Information Sciences - Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic 18 Pancomputationalism: Theory or Metaphor? - Vincent C Muller Part VII: Ethics 19 The Importance of the Sources of Professional Obligations - Francis Dane