South-South cooperation is becoming ever more important to states, policy-makers and academics. Many Northern states, international agencies and NGOs are promoting South-South partnerships as a means of ‘sharing the burden’ in funding and undertaking development, assistance and protection activities, often in response to increased political and financial pressures on their own aid budgets. However, the mainstreaming of Southern-led initiatives by UN agencies and Northern states is paradoxical in many ways, especially because the development of a South-South cooperation paradigm was originally conceptualised as a necessary way to overcome the exploitative nature of North-South relations in the era of decolonisation.

This handbook critically explores diverse ways of defining ‘the South’ and of conceptualising and engaging with ‘South-South relations.’ Through 30 state-of-the-art reviews of key academic and policy debates, the handbook evaluates past, present and future opportunities and challenges of South-South cooperation, and lays out research agendas for the next 5-10 years. The book covers key models of cooperation (including internationalism, Pan-Arabism and Pan-Africanism), diverse modes of South-South connection, exchange and support (including South-South aid, transnational activism, and migration), and responses to displacement, violence and conflict (including Southern-led humanitarianism, peace-building and conflict resolution). In so doing, the handbook reflects on decolonial, postcolonial and anticolonial theories and methodologies, exploring urgent questions regarding the nature and implications of conducting research in and about the global South, and of applying a ‘Southern lens’ to a wide range of encounters, processes and dynamics across the global South and global North alike.

This handbook will be of great interest to scholars and post-graduate students in anthropology, area studies, cultural studies, development studies, history, geography, international relations, politics, postcolonial studies and sociology.

chapter 1|27 pages


Conceptualising the global South and South–South encounters

part I|96 pages

Conceptualising and studying South–South relations

chapter 4|17 pages

‘When spider webs unite they can tie up a lion’

Anti-racism, decolonial options and theories from the South

chapter 5|10 pages

Postcolonialism’s after-life in the Arab world

Toward a post-authoritarian approach

chapter 6|9 pages

South–South relations in the academic world

The case of anthropology

chapter 8|13 pages

Creating indigenous discourse

History, power and imperialism in academia, Palestinian case 1

part II|63 pages

South–South cooperation

chapter 10|12 pages

South–South cooperation and competition

A critical history of the principles and their practice

chapter 11|15 pages

Dreaming revolution

Tricontinentalism, anti-imperialism and Third World rebellion

chapter 13|11 pages


A history

part III|48 pages

South–South cooperation

chapter 16|11 pages

Climate change and the future of agriculture in the Caribbean

Prospects for South–South cooperation

chapter 17|11 pages

South–South relations in African agriculture

Hybrid modalities of cooperation and development perspectives from Brazil and China

part IV|95 pages

South–South cooperation in displacement, security and peace

chapter 18|17 pages

Southern-led responses to displacement

Modes of South–South cooperation?

chapter 20|12 pages

South–South cooperation in international organisations

Its conceptualisation and implementation within UNDP and UNHCR

chapter 21|14 pages

Cooperation on refugees in Latin America and the Caribbean

The ‘Cartagena process’ and South–South approaches

chapter 22|13 pages

The ‘need to be there’

North–South encounters and imaginations in the humanitarian economy

chapter 23|11 pages

Security cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

Threats, institutions and challenges

part V|92 pages

South–South connections

chapter 25|10 pages

Struggles for gender justice

Regional networks and feminist experiences of South–South collaborations

chapter 26|12 pages

A political economy analysis of South–South youth relations in Africa

Drivers and future research questions

chapter 28|10 pages

South–South cooperation through education?

The example of China with/in Africa

chapter 31|19 pages

Art connections

South–South transnational flow(s)