Anti-communism has long been a potent force in American politics, capable of gripping both government and popular attention. Nowhere is this more evident that the two great 'red scares' of 1919-20 and 1946-54; the latter generally - if somewhat inaccurately - termed McCarthyism. The interlude between these two major scares has tended to garner less attention, but as this volume makes clear, the lingering effects of 1919-20 and the gathering storm-clouds of 'McCarthyism' were clearly visible throughout the 20s and 30s, even if in a more low-key way. Indeed, the period between the two great red scares was marked by frequent instances of political repression, often justified on anti-communist grounds, at local, state and federal levels. Yet these events have been curiously neglected in the history of American political repression and anti-communism, perhaps because much of the material deals with events scattered in time and space which never reached the intensity of the two great scares. By focusing on this twenty-five year 'interim' period, the essays in this collection bridge the gap between the two high-profile 'red scares' thus offering a much more contextualised and fluid narrative for American anti-communism. In so doing the rationale and motivations for the 'red scares' can be seen as part of an evolving political landscape, rather than as isolated bouts of hysteria exploding onto - and then vanishing from - the political scene. Instead, a much more nuanced appreciation of the conflicting interests and fears of government, politicians, organised labour, free-speech advocates, employers, and the press is offered, which will be of interest to anyone wishing to better understand the political history of modern America.

chapter 1|22 pages

After the Red Scare

Civil Liberties in the Era of Harding and Coolidge
ByErnest Freeberg

chapter 2|22 pages

The FBI and the Politics of Anti-Communism, 1920–1945

A Prelude to Power
ByAthan Theoharis

chapter 3|26 pages

Citizens versus Outsiders

Anti-Communism at State and Local Levels, 1921–1946
ByM.J. Heale

chapter 6|30 pages

Fighting the “Red Danger”

Employers and Anti-Communism
ByChad Pearson

chapter 7|30 pages

Leftward Ramparts

Labor and Anticommunism between the World Wars
ByMarkku Ruotsila

chapter 8|18 pages

Premature McCarthyism

Spanish Republican Aid and the Origins of Cold War Anti-Communism
ByEric Smith

chapter 9|24 pages

Laying the Foundations for the Post-World War II Red Scare

Investigating the Left-Feminist Consumer Movement
ByLandon R.Y. Storrs

chapter 10|24 pages

The Dies Committee v. the New Deal

Real Americans and the Unending Search for Un-Americans
ByKenneth O’Reilly

chapter 11|28 pages

The Long Black and Red Scare

Anti-Communism and the African American Freedom Struggle 1
ByRobbie Lieberman

chapter 12|26 pages

Shooting Rabid Dogs

New York’s Rapp–Coudert Attack on Teachers Unions
ByStephen Leberstein

chapter 13|32 pages

The History of the Smith Act and the Hatch Act

Anti-Communism and the Rise of the Conservative Coalition in Congress
ByRebecca Hill