The three intervening decades between the Congress of Vienna and the Revolutions of 1848 are marked by enormous social, political, economic and cultural change. Liberalism, nationalism, romanticism and industrialism profoundly affected the course of Europe and compelled conservative monarchies to accept the principles of collective action and military force to curb political revolution. In the years immediately following 1815, the Quadruple and Holy Alliances served the dual purpose of preventing a restoration of Bonapartism and suppressing revolutions. By the 1820s these international associations dissipated, but the principles upon which they were founded informed the decisions of the respective governments through 1848. The classic articles and papers collected in this volume attempt to illustrate that despite the substantial changes to European society which occurred during these thirty years, European powers accepted common principles which influenced their state's domestic and foreign policies.

part 1|61 pages

The Congress of Vienna and the Concert of Europe

part 2|101 pages

The Eastern Question

part 3|113 pages

The German Question

chapter 9|13 pages

From Rheinbund to Deutscher Bund: The Road to European Equilibrium

ByEnno E. Kraehe

chapter 11|18 pages

Prussian Aims for the Zollverein, 1828–1833

ByDavid T. Murphy

chapter 12|14 pages

The German Zollverein and the European Economic Community

ByW.O. Henderson

chapter 13|12 pages

Metternich and the July Revolution

ByFritz L. Hoffman

part 4|114 pages

Italy, Spain and Latin America