Ethnodevelopment is a well-established concept in the field of development studies. Despite its relevance to tourism initiatives and processes in the Global South, it continues to be an underutilised concept in the field.

This book bridges this gap, presenting an original conceptual framework to study the relationship between tourism and ethnodevelopment. It focuses on the processes of inclusion, empowerment, self-expression and self-determination to explore the effects of tourism initiatives on the identities, cultural resilience, livelihoods and economic opportunities of ethnic minority communities. Chapters explore a range of concepts and issues such as gender, authenticity, indigenous knowledge, tradition, the commodification of culture, community-based tourism, local entrepreneurship, cultural heritage,  and tourism and the environment. Drawing on rich primary research conducted across South East Asia and South and Central America the book offers detailed evaluations of the successes and failures of various tourism policies and practices.

This book makes a valuable contribution for students, scholars, practitioners and policy-makers alike interested in tourism, development studies, geography and anthropology.

part |24 pages


chapter 1|22 pages

Tourism and ethnodevelopmentAn introduction

ByVictor T. King, Ismar Borges de Lima

part I|128 pages

Institutionalised Ethnic Tourism and Advances in Ethnodevelopment Policies, Communities, Organisations

chapter 3|21 pages

Territorial management and Brazilian public policy for ethnotourism and ecotourism in Indigenous landsThe Pataxó case in Bahia

ByCarlos Alfredo Ferraz de Oliveira, Ismar Borges de Lima, Márcia Teixeira Falcão

chapter 4|17 pages

Empowerment through community-based ecotourism in a globalised world global-local nexus – three Thai villages as case studies

ByNantira Pookhao, Robyn Bushell, Mary Hawkins, Russell Staiff

chapter 5|41 pages

Environmental stewardship, Indigenous tourism planning and the Fakcha Llakta community

An ethnic endogenous development model in Otavalo-Imbabura, Ecuador
ByKennedy Rolando Lomas Tapia, Carmen Amelia Trujillo, Ismar Borges de Lima

chapter 6|16 pages

Missio-tourism among ethnic Karen in Thailand

A bridge to empowerment, development and self-determination or promotion of assistencialism?
ByShirley Worland

chapter 7|14 pages

Empowerment, participation and barriers

Ethnic minority community-based ecotourism development in Lao PDR
ByEerang Park, Toulakham Phandanouvong, Phouvanh Xaysena, Sangkyun Kim

part II|60 pages

Ethnic Entrepreneurship, Tourism and Ethnodevelopment

chapter 8|15 pages

Indigenous micro tourism businesses, ethnodevelopment and NGOs

Projectitis in Lago Budi in Chile
ByIngeborg Nordb⊘

chapter 11|13 pages

Sámi indigenous tourism empowerment in the Nordic countries through labelling systems

Strengthening ethnic enterprises and activities
ByCecilia de Bernardi, Outi Kugapi, Monika Lüthje

part III|70 pages

Empowerment Approaches in Ethnic TourismIssues of Authenticity, Cultural Commodification and Gender

chapter 12|17 pages

Exotic tourists, ethnic hosts

A critical approach to tourism and ethnodevelopment
ByTuhina Ganguly, Mike Grimshaw

chapter 14|14 pages

Tourism in the Fond Gens Libre Indigenous community in Saint Lucia

Examining impacts and empowerment
ByLorraine Nicholas, Brijesh Thapa

chapter 15|23 pages

Ethnodevelopment in Kalunga’s community-based tourism

From a past marked by slavery to ethnic group struggles for empowerment and recognition
ByThaís Alves Marinho

part |8 pages


chapter 16|6 pages

Tourism and ethnodevelopment

Advances in the field and concluding highlights
ByVictor T. King, Ismar Borges de Lima