This title was first published in 2001. The central characteristics of political ethnicity and its dysfunctional attributes in African politics is vexing to Africa's policy makers. Moreover, as a conflictive ideology in national and international politics, many political actors would rather avoid it. In the past, nationalists have blamed ethnic chauvinists for fanning the embers of ethnicity, but today they realize they may have underestimated its prominence in African politics.