Initiated and governed by property or business owners under the authorization of state and local governments, business improvement districts (BIDs) have received a very mixed reception. To some, they are innovative examples of self-governance and public-private partnerships; to others, they are yet another example of the movement toward the privatization of what should be inherent government responsibilities.

Among the first books to present a collection of scholarly work on the subject, Business Improvement Districts: Research, Theories, and Controversies brings together renowned leaders in the field to compile the highest-quality theoretical, legal, and empirical studies into one comprehensive volume. Investigating fundamental concerns at the core of the debate, as well as potential solutions, this groundbreaking resource:

  • Tackles the need for improved problem solving and efficiency in service delivery
  • Examines new and innovative policy tools for both the public and private sectors
  • Evaluates whether BIDs do ignore the needs and voices of residential property owners
  • Discusses the challenge created by social segregation in cities
  • Addresses lack of accountability by BIDs to the public and elected representatives

From different perspectives, leading practitioners and academics analyze the pros and cons of BIDs both in the United States and around the world. They look at their impact on urban planning and retail revitalization, consider their legal implications, and explore ways to measure BID performance. Filled with case studies of urban centers including San Diego, Atlanta, New York, Toronto, and Capetown, and state models such as New Jersey and Pennsylvania, this examination bring together essential information for researchers as well as those leaders and policy makers looking to adopt a BID model or improve one already in place.

chapter 1|23 pages

Business Improvement Districts: Research, Theories, and Controversies

ByGöktuğ Morçöl, Lorlene Hoyt, Jack W. Meek, Ulf Zimmermann

part 1|134 pages

Theoretical and Legal Issues and Perspectives

chapter 2|24 pages

Metropolitan Governance and Business Improvement Districts*

ByGöktuğ Morçöl, Ulf Zimmermann

chapter 3|19 pages

Private Governments: A Polycentric Perspective*

BySusan E. Baer

chapter 7|20 pages

The BID Model in Canada and the United States: The Retail-Revitalization Nexus

ByDevika Gopal-Agge, Lorlene Hoyt

part 2|240 pages

BIDS in The United States

chapter 13|30 pages

Business Improvement Districts in Pennsylvania: Implications for Democratic Metropolitan Governance *

ByGöktuğ Morçöl, Patricia A. Patrick

chapter 14|30 pages

Getting the Max for the Tax: An Examination of BID Performance Measures *

ByGina Caruso, Rachel Weber

chapter 15|23 pages

Community Improvement Districts in Metropolitan Atlanta *

ByGöktuğ Morçöl, Ulf Zimmermann

part 3|100 pages

BIDs in Canada, Britain, and Ireland

chapter 17|21 pages

The Strategic Evolution of the BID Model in Canada *

ByTony Hernandez, Ken Jones

chapter 20|26 pages

The Adoption of the BID Model in Ireland: Context and Considerations *

ByJohn Ratcliffe, Brenda Ryan