THE TRIUMPH OF IMAGE over reality and reason is the theme of this book. New communication technologies have made possible the transportation of images and words in real time to hundreds of millions of people around the world. We thought we witnessed the Gulf War as we sat, mesmerized by the imagery. But the studies from the many countries assembled for this book suggest that it was not the war in the Persian Gulf that we witnessed but rather imagery orchestrated to convey a sense of triumph and thus to achieve results that reality and reason could never have achieved. The book offers contributions from thirty-five authors in eighteen countries, including short samplings from the media of several regions. The authors explore the social, economic, and political context of media coverage in their countries, the domination of one image in most of them, and the struggle for alternative perspectives. The authors probe the dynamics of image-making and pose some challenges for the future as well as provide us with a unique glimpse of how the world outside of the United States (as well as many Americans) viewed the war in the Persian Gulf and how the dynamics of image-making and information control operate. Triumph of the Image will be useful to scholars and students in communications and mass media, international relations, political science, cultural studies, propaganda, censorship, and contemporary history as well as to the general public.

part One|63 pages

Image and Reality

chapter Two|8 pages

Manipulating Hearts and Minds

ByHerbert I. Schiller

chapter Three|21 pages

Roots of War: The Long Road of Intervention

ByHamid Mowlana

chapter Four|13 pages

The Media and the War: What War?

ByNoam Chomsky

part Two|108 pages

Many Nations, One Image

chapter Five|8 pages

The New World Odour: The Indian Experience

ByP. Sainath

chapter Six|21 pages

The State, the Malaysian Press, and the War in West Asia

ByZaharom Nain

chapter Seven|3 pages

The War Close to Home: The Turkish Media

ByHaluk Sahin

chapter Eight|7 pages

The Iranian Press and the Persian Gulf War: The Impact of Western News Agencies

ByKazem Motamed-Nejad, Naiim Badii, Mehdi Mohsenian-Rad

chapter Nine|12 pages

War Reporting: Collateral Damage in the European Theater

ByFarrel Corcoran

chapter Ten|10 pages

Ruling by Pooling

ByStig A. Nohrstedt

chapter Eleven|9 pages

Innovations of Moral Policy

ByHeikki Luostarinen

chapter Twelve|7 pages

Truth: The First Victim of War?

ByRune Ottosen

chapter Thirteen|22 pages

Public Opinion and Media War Coverage in Britain

ByMartin Shaw, Roy Carr-Hill

chapter Fourteen|7 pages

A Sampling of Editorial Responses from the Middle Eastern Press on the Persian Gulf Crisis

ByHamid Mowlana, Danielle Vierling, Amy Tully

part Three|93 pages

Coming Back to Reality

chapter Fifteen|6 pages

Twisting the U.N. Charter to U.S. Ends

ByRichard A. Falk

chapter Sixteen|21 pages

CNN: Elites Talking to Elites

ByRichard C. Vincent

chapter Seventeen|14 pages

Exterminating Angels: Morality, Violence, and Technology in the Gulf War

ByAsu Aksoy, Kevin Robins

chapter Eighteen|20 pages

More Viewing, Less Knowledge

ByMichael Morgan, Justin Lewis, Sut Jhally

chapter Nineteen|7 pages

Clusters of Reality Bombed into Bold Relief

ByErskine B. Childers

chapter Twenty|23 pages

Persian Gulf War, the Movie

ByGeorge Gerbner