As the challenge of preventing military conflict has become increasingly complex in the post-Cold War era, economic sanctions are being applied with growing frequency. Sanctions are also being used to enforce international law, to deter aggression and terrorism, to defend democracy and human rights, and to prevent nuclear proliferation. This study addresses questions about the utility, appropriateness and success or failure of sanctions, as well as their impact on the poor and innocent. Specific case studies, focusing on recent conflicts such as those in Haiti, Iraq, South Africa and the former Yugoslavia, demonstrate the principal aspects of economic sanctions.

part One|48 pages

International and National Experiences with Sanctions

chapter 1|14 pages

Economic Sanctions in Contemporary Global Relations

ByGeorge Α. Lopez, David Cortright

chapter 2|11 pages

The United Nations Experience with Sanctions

ByJames C. Νgobi

chapter 3|14 pages

Economic Sanctions as Tools of Foreign Policy

ByIvan Eland

chapter 4|6 pages

A Review of Economic Sanctions: A Russian Perspective

ByAlexander Konovalov, Sergey Oznobistchev, Dmitry G. Evstafiev

part Two|69 pages

Assessing Sanctions

chapter 5|9 pages

Factors Affecting the Success of Sanctions

ByKimberly Ann Elliott

chapter 6|11 pages

The Problems and Promise of Sanctions

ByWilliam H. Kaempfer, Anton D. Lorwenberg

chapter 7|15 pages

Sanctions and International Law

ByChristopher C. Joyner

chapter 8|8 pages

The Political and Moral Appropriateness of Sanctions

ByJack T. Patterson

chapter 9|21 pages

Economic Sanctions and the Just-War Doctrine

ByDrew S.J. Christiansen, Gerard F. Powers

part Three|66 pages

Case Studies

chapter 10|12 pages

UN Sanctions Against Iraq

ByDavid E. Reuther

chapter 11|7 pages

Economic Sanctions Against Iraq: Do They Contribute to a Just Settlement?

ByBashir Al-Samarrai

chapter 14|11 pages

The Use of Sanctions in Haiti: Assessing the Economic Realities

ByClaudette Antoine Werleigh

chapter 15|12 pages

Sanctions and Apartheid: The Economic Challenge to Discrimination

ByJennifer Davis

part Four|24 pages

The Future of Sanctions

chapter 16|13 pages

A Proposal for a New United Nations Council on Economic Sanctions

ByLloyd (Jeff) Dumas

chapter 17|8 pages

Research Concerns and Policy Needs in an Era of Sanctions

ByDavid Cortright, George A. Lopez