Critics of the ecosystem concept have noted the tendency of ecosystem-based studies to overemphasize energy flow, to rely on functionalist assumptions, to neglect historical and evolutionary factors, and to overlook the role of individuals as the locus of natural selection and decision making. In this volume, leading figures in the study of biological and human ecology evaluate these criticisms and propose ways to advance the state of knowledge in ecological research.

part 2|75 pages

New Directions in Resolving the Problem of Time and of Boundary Definition in Ecosystems

part 3|74 pages

New Directions in Resolving the Problems of Hierarchical Level, Scale, and Data Collection