Ideals and Ideologies: A Reader is a comprehensive compilation of classic and contemporary readings representing all of the major "isms." It offers students a generous sampling of key thinkers in different ideological traditions and places them in their historical and political contexts. Used on its own or with Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal, the anthology accounts for the different ways people use ideology and conveys the continuing importance of ideas in politics.

New to this 11th Edition:

  • Alexander Keyssar, "Voter Suppression, Then and Now" (a distinguished historian traces the tawdry history of attempts, successful and unsuccessful, to disenfranchise voters).
  • Andrew Sullivan, "Democracies End When They Become Too Democratic" (an eminent conservative commentator and author argues that, under certain circumstances, democracies pose a danger to their very own existence).
  • Timothy Egan, "The Dumbed Down Democracy" (a prominent author and columnist argues that American democracy has been "dumbed down" due, in large part, to the absence of civic education in the public school curriculum).
  • Max Boot and David Brooks, "Conservatives Assess Trump" (two leading contemporary conservatives ponder the fundamental ideological problems the current president poses for the movement, and consider the ways in which Donald Trump is—and isn’t—a true conservative).
  • Eugene V. Debs, "Speech to the Conference for Progressive Political Action" (an early 20th-century American socialist and former presidential candidate articulates his vision for a new workers’ party that would challenge capitalism in the United States).
  • Robert Kagan, "This is How Fascism Comes to America" (a prominent neoconservative historian detects disturbing parallels between the rise of Donald Trump and that of various interwar fascists).
  • Erik Loomis, "A New Chapter in the Black Liberation Movement" (an American historian makes the case for Black Liberation with a particularly compelling case study: how prisoners (mainly black) work essentially as slaves in both public and for-profit prisons in the United States).
  • Black Lives Matter, "A Vision for Black Lives: Demands for Black Power, Freedom & Justice" (leaders of the Black Lives Matter movement set forth their basic ideological beliefs and public policy prescriptions).
  • Josephine Livingstone, "The Task Ahead for Feminism" (the author argues that much remains to be done after the #MeToo movement).

part 1|9 pages

The Concept of Ideology

chapter 1.1|7 pages

Ideology: The Career of a Concept

ByTerrell Carver

part 2|63 pages

The Democratic Ideal: Historical and Philosophical Foundations

chapter 2.2|2 pages

Democracy and Despotism


chapter 2.3|5 pages

Funeral Oration


chapter 2.4|5 pages

Democratic Judgment and the “Middling” Constitution


chapter 2.5|4 pages

What’s Wrong With Princely Rule?

ByNiccolò Machiavelli

chapter 2.6|6 pages

What Is a Republic?

ByJohn Adams

chapter 2.7|2 pages

Bill of Rights of the United States

ByTerence Ball, Richard Dagger, Daniel I. O’Neill

chapter 2.8|8 pages

Democracy and Equality

ByAlexis de Tocqueville

chapter 2.9|7 pages

Democratic Participation and Political Education

ByJohn Stuart Mill

chapter 2.10|4 pages

Voter Suppression, Then and Now

ByAlexander Keyssar

chapter 2.11|10 pages

Democracies End When They Are Too Democratic

ByAndrew Sullivan

chapter 2.12|3 pages

The Dumbed Down Democracy

ByTimothy Egan

part 3|103 pages


chapter 3.13|7 pages

The State of Nature and the Basis of Obligation

ByThomas Hobbes

chapter 3.14|15 pages

Toleration and Government

ByJohn Locke

chapter 3.15|4 pages

Government, Rights, and the Freedom of Generations

ByThomas Paine

chapter 3.16|3 pages

Declaration of Independence of the United States

ByTerence Ball, Richard Dagger, Daniel I. O’Neill

chapter 3.17|3 pages

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizens

ByTerence Ball, Richard Dagger, Daniel I. O’Neill

chapter 3.18|3 pages

Private Profit, Public Good

ByAdam Smith

chapter 3.19|3 pages

Freedom and Enlightenment

ByImmanuel Kant

chapter 3.20|7 pages

Liberty and Individuality

ByJohn Stuart Mill

chapter 3.21|4 pages

According to the Fitness of Things

ByWilliam Graham Sumner

chapter 3.22|4 pages

Liberalism and Positive Freedom

ByT. H. Green

chapter 3.23|7 pages

Commonwealth Club Address

ByFranklin D. Roosevelt

chapter 3.24|5 pages

“To Fulfill These Rights”: Speech at Howard University

ByLyndon B. Johnson

chapter 3.25|6 pages

The Conscience of a Liberal

ByPaul Krugman

chapter 3.26|6 pages

Paternalism vs. Democracy: A Libertarian View

ByDonald Allen

chapter 3.27|4 pages

Libertarian Anarchism

ByMurray Rothbard

chapter 3.28|9 pages

A Libertarian Utopia

ByTerence Ball

part 4|50 pages


chapter 4.29|7 pages

Society, Reverence, and the “True Natural Aristocracy”

ByEdmund Burke

chapter 4.30|4 pages

Conservatism as Reaction

ByJoseph de Maistre

chapter 4.31|9 pages

On Being Conservative

ByMichael Oakeshott

chapter 4.32|7 pages

Ten Conservative Principles

ByRussell Kirk

chapter 4.33|8 pages

Modern American Conservatism

ByRonald Reagan

chapter 4.34|4 pages

The Neoconservative Persuasion

ByIrving Kristol

chapter 4.35|6 pages

Conservatives Assess Trump

ByMax Boot, David Brooks

part 5|30 pages

Socialism and Communism: From More to Marx

chapter 5.36|7 pages


ByThomas More

chapter 5.37|4 pages

Address to the Inhabitants of New Lanark

ByRobert Owen

chapter 5.38|13 pages

The Communist Manifesto

ByKarl Marx, Friedrich Engels

chapter 5.39|2 pages

On the Materialist Conception of History

ByKarl Marx

part 6|68 pages

Socialism and Communism after Marx

chapter 6.40|6 pages

Evolutionary Socialism

ByEduard Bernstein

chapter 6.41|16 pages

Revisionism, Imperialism, and Revolution

ByV. I. Lenin

chapter 6.42|5 pages

The Permanent Revolution

ByLeon Trotsky

chapter 6.43|10 pages

On the People’s Democratic Dictatorship

ByMao Zedong

chapter 6.44|3 pages

Anarcho-Communism vs. Marxism

ByMikhail Bakunin

chapter 6.45|9 pages

Anarchism: What It Really Stands For

ByEmma Goldman

chapter 6.46|6 pages

Speech to the Conference for Progressive Political Action

ByEugene V. Debs

chapter 6.47|6 pages

On Democratic Socialism in the United States

ByBernie Sanders

part 7|45 pages


chapter 7.48|7 pages

Civilization and Race

ByJoseph-Arthur de Gobineau

chapter 7.49|9 pages

The Doctrine of Fascism

ByBenito Mussolini

chapter 7.50|6 pages

The Political Theory of Fascism

ByAlfredo Rocco

chapter 7.51|15 pages

Nation and Race

ByAdolf Hitler

chapter 7.52|3 pages

This Is How Fascism Comes to America

ByRobert Kagan

part 8|91 pages

Liberation Ideologies and the Politics of Identity

chapter 8.53|5 pages

What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?

ByFrederick Douglass

chapter 8.54|4 pages

Race Matters

ByCornel West

chapter 8.55|4 pages

A New Chapter in the Black Liberation Movement

ByErik Loomis

chapter 8.57|6 pages

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

ByMary Wollstonecraft

chapter 8.58|4 pages

Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions

ByTerence Ball, Richard Dagger, Daniel I. O’Neill

chapter 8.59|9 pages


ByMarilyn Frye

chapter 8.60|6 pages

Feminism Is for Everybody

ByBell Hooks

chapter 8.61|4 pages

The Task Ahead for Feminism

ByJosephine Livingstone

chapter 8.62|9 pages

Homosexuality: The Nature and Harm Arguments

ByJohn Corvino

chapter 8.63|6 pages

On Liberation

ByVine Deloria

chapter 8.64|6 pages

Liberation Theology

ByGustavo Gutiérrez

chapter 8.65|11 pages

All Animals Are Equal

ByPeter Singer

part 9|46 pages

“Green” Politics: Ecology as Ideology

chapter 9.66|10 pages

Sustainability in the Age of Ecology

ByLeslie Paul Thiele

chapter 9.67|8 pages

Getting Along With Nature

ByWendell Berry

chapter 9.68|7 pages

Feminism and the Mastery of Nature

ByVal Plumwood

chapter 9.69|8 pages

Whose Earth Is It, Anyway?

ByJames H. Cone

chapter 9.70|8 pages

Laudato Si’: On Care for Our Common Home

ByPope Francis

part 10|27 pages

Radical Islamism

chapter 10.71|5 pages

Signposts Along the Road

BySayyid Qutb

chapter 10.72|7 pages

The Necessity for Islamic Government

ByAyatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

chapter 10.73|3 pages

Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders: World Islamic Front Statement

ByOsama Bin Laden

chapter 10.74|5 pages

Declaration of a Caliphate

ByAbu Bakr Al-Baghdadi