The people of Afghanistan stand at a crossroads, with resistance to the Soviet occupation entering its eighth year. The question of survival must be weighed against the difficult political choices of fighting or reaching an accommodation with the Soviet-backed Kabul regime. The vast majority choose to continue the struggle--aided in part by covert arms shipments--and to search for a uniquely Afghan nationalism despite rumors of an impending USSR-U.S. deal whereby, in return for Soviet troop withdrawal and cessation of arms aid to the Mujahideen, Afghanistan and Pakistan would become neutral Muslim nations. Drawing on Afghan cultural and historical background, this collection of original essays provides fresh insights into the nature of the Afghan conflict, the country's threatened national infrastructure, the continuing decimation of its citizens, and the prospects for their survival. Showing that popular resistance is not limited to the Mujahideen, or freedom fighters, but encompasses the Afghan people as a whole, the contributors examine the impact of the world's largest refugee population on the shape of the future Afghanistan. Based on their extensive firsthand experience in the region, the contributors provide an interdisciplinary analysis of a country, a people, and a war still too little known to the outside world.

chapter |19 pages


ByGrant M. Farr, John G. Merriam

chapter 1|30 pages

Origins of the Anti-Soviet Jihad

ByDavid Busby Edwards

chapter 2|20 pages

Leadership Dilemmas: Challenges and Responses

BySultan A. Aziz

chapter 3|31 pages

Arms Shipments to the Afghan Resistance

ByJohn G. Merriam

chapter 4|23 pages

Afghan Refugee Women and Their Struggle for Survival

ByKathleen Howard-Merriam

chapter 5|24 pages

The New Afghan Middle Class as Refugees and Insurgents

ByGrant M. Farr

chapter 6|40 pages

Rationales for the Movement of Afghan Refugees to Peshawar

ByKerry M. Connor

chapter 7|22 pages

Humanitarian Response to an Inhuman Strategy

ByRalph H. Magnus