For many years, most scholarly and journalistic intepretation of Chinese politics has followed the practice of the media in the People's Republic, analyzing conflict among the leadership in terms of a dichotomy between two lines, R or the two-line struggle. The adherents of· this model refer to the two lines as -ideologues'" or -radicals· on the one hand, versus pragmatists- or moderates on the other. In this book the authors propose that Chinese politics can more fruitfully be. assessed in light of a clash among three, rather than two, competing ·visions.- Policy conflicts, they conclude, occur because of disagreements over the relative priorities to set among three competing va1ues--productivity, mass participation and mobilization, and order. Each author analyzes debates over market, mobilization, and bureaucratic approaches in a particular policy sector, demonstrating how differing visions have influenced policy formation.