Edited by experts at the leading edge of the development of causal assessment methods for more than two decades, Ecological Causal Assessment gives insight and expert guidance on how to identify cause-effect relationships in environmental systems. The book discusses the importance of asking the fundamental question "Why did this effect happen?" bef

Part 1: Introduction. Introduction. History of Causation and Causal Concepts. Causal Analysis and Human Cognition. Part 2: Conducting Causal Assessments. Framing Assessments. Conceptual Model Diagrams As a Structure for Information Organization and Analysis. Covariance and Confounding. Multiple Cases. Causal Arguments and Evidence. Sources of Evidence: Case-specific Observations. Sources of Evidence: Experiments and Manipulations. Source of Evidence: Observational Studies. Other Sources of Evidence. Forming Causal Conclusions. Presenting the Causal Case. Evaluating and Using the Results of Causal Assessments. Part 3: Case Studies. Stressor Identification/Aquatic (Long Creek). Stressor Identification/Terrestrial (Kit Fox). Stressor Identification/Aquatic (Northern Rivers). Case Vignettes.