This book looks at the synthesis of polyaniline by different methods, under different conditions, for various applications, and presents studies of its properties by a wide range of the modern physic-chemical methods. The book provides a comprehensive analysis of experimental results from the point of view of the correlations in the triad synthesis conditions–structurephysico–chemical properties. It combines the results of experimental investigations and original methodology of the description of physical–chemical and electrochemical phenomena at interface surfaces, showing an influence of such phenomena on the applied aspects of the polyaniline and nanocomposites on its basis applications.