Physical Modelling in Geotechnics collects more than 1500 pages of peer-reviewed papers written by researchers from over 30 countries, and presented at the 9th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 2018 (City, University of London, UK 17-20 July 2018). The ICPMG series has grown such that two volumes of proceedings were required to publish all contributions. The books represent a substantial body of work in four years. Physical Modelling in Geotechnics contains 230 papers, including eight keynote and themed lectures representing the state-of-the-art in physical modelling research in aspects as diverse as fundamental modelling including sensors, imaging, modelling techniques and scaling, onshore and offshore foundations, dams and embankments, retaining walls and deep excavations, ground improvement and environmental engineering, tunnels and geohazards including significant contributions in the area of seismic engineering. ISSMGE TC104 have identified areas for special attention including education in physical modelling and the promotion of physical modelling to industry. With this in mind there is a special themed paper on education, focusing on both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching as well as practicing geotechnical engineers.

Physical modelling has entered a new era with the advent of exciting work on real time interfaces between physical and numerical modelling and the growth of facilities and expertise that enable development of so called ‘megafuges’ of 1000gtonne capacity or more; capable of modelling the largest and most complex of geotechnical challenges. Physical Modelling in Geotechnics will be of interest to professionals, engineers and academics interested or involved in geotechnics, geotechnical engineering and related areas.

The 9th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics was organised by the Multi Scale Geotechnical Engineering Research Centre at City, University of London under the auspices of Technical Committee 104 of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE). City, University of London, are pleased to host the prestigious international conference for the first time having initiated and hosted the first regional conference, Eurofuge, ten years ago in 2008. Quadrennial regional conferences in both Europe and Asia are now well established events giving doctoral researchers, in particular, the opportunity to attend an international conference in this rapidly evolving specialist area.

This is volume 1 of a 2-volume set.

part 1|109 pages

Keynote and Themed lectures

chapter 2|12 pages

An example of effective mentoring for research centres

ByC.E. Bronner, D.W. Wilson, K. Ziotopoulou, K.M. Darby, A. Sturm, A.J. Raymond, R.W. Boulanger, J.T. DeJong, D.M. Moug, J.D. Bronner

chapter 3|9 pages

Geotechnical modelling for offshore renewables

ByC. Gaudin, C.D. O’Loughlin, B. Bienen

chapter 4|8 pages

Physical modelling applied to infrastructure development

ByR.J. Goodey

chapter 7|14 pages

Physical modelling of structural and biological soil reinforcement

ByJ.A. Knappett

chapter 8|9 pages

Current and emerging physical modelling technologies

ByW.A. Take

part 2|50 pages

1. Sample preparation and characterisation

chapter 9|6 pages

Investigation into 3D printing of granular media

ByO. Adamidis, S. Alber, I. Anastasopoulos

chapter 10|6 pages

Undrained shear strength profile of normally and overconsolidated kaolin clay

ByA. Arnold, W. Zhang, A. Askarinejad

chapter 11|6 pages

LEAP GWU 2017: Investigating different methods for verifying the relative density of a centrifuge model

ByR. Beber, S.S.C. Madabhushi, A. Dobrisan, S.K. Haigh, S.P.G. Madabhushi

chapter 12|6 pages

Centrifuge modelling of Continuous Compaction Control (CCC)

ByB. Caicedo, J. Escobar

chapter 13|6 pages

Shear wave velocity: Comparison between centrifuge and triaxial based measurements

ByG. Cui, C.M. Heron, A.M. Marshall

chapter 14|5 pages

Development of layered models for geotechnical centrifuge tests

ByS. Divall, S.E. Stallebrass, R.J. Goodey, E.P. Ritchie

chapter 15|6 pages

The influence of temperature on shear strength at a soil-structure interface

ByJ. Parchment, P. Shepley

chapter 16|6 pages

Development of a 3D clay printer for the preparation of heterogeneous models

ByL.M. Pua, B. Caicedo, D. Castillo, S. Caro

part 3|46 pages

2. Engineered platforms

chapter 17|6 pages

Centrifuge modelling utility pipe behaviour subject to vehicular loading

ByS.M. Bayton, T. Elmrom, J.A. Black

chapter 19|4 pages

Physical modelling of roads in expansive clay subjected to wetting-drying cycles

ByS. Laporte, G.A. Siemens, R.A. Beddoe

chapter 20|6 pages

Scaled physical modelling of ultra-thin continuously reinforced concrete pavement

ByM.S. Smit, E.P. Kearsley, S.W. Jacobsz

chapter 21|6 pages

The effect of relative stiffness on soil-structure interaction under vehicle loads

ByM.S. Smit, E.P. Kearsley, S.W. Jacobsz

chapter 22|5 pages

Plate bearing tests for working platforms

ByG. Tanghetti, R.J. Goodey, A.M. McNamara, H. Halai

chapter 24|4 pages

1g physical modelling of the stoneblowing technique for the improvement of railway track maintenance

ByA.A. Zaytsev, A.A. Abrashitov, A.A. Sydrakov

part 4|32 pages

3. Physical/Numerical interface and comparisons

chapter 25|6 pages

Millisecond interfacing of physical models with ABAQUS

ByS. Idinyang, A. Franza, C.M. Heron, A.M. Marshall

chapter 27|5 pages

Centrifuge and numerical investigations of rotated box structures

ByO.S. Abuhajar, T.A. Newson, K.J.L. Stone

chapter 28|6 pages

Multibillion particle DEM to simulate centrifuge model tests of geomaterials

ByH. Sakaguchi, D. Nishiura, S. Yamamoto

chapter 29|6 pages

Trapdoor model test and DEM simulation associated with arching

ByM. Otsubo, R. Kuwano, U. Ali, H. Ebizuka

part 5|38 pages

4. Scaling

chapter 30|6 pages

Variability of small scale model reinforced concrete and implications for geotechnical centrifuge testing

ByJ.A. Knappett, M.J. Brown, L. Shields, A.H. Al-Defae, M. Loli

chapter 31|6 pages

Modelling experiments to investigate soil-water retention in geotechnical centrifuge

ByM. Mirshekari, M. Ghayoomi, A. Borghei

chapter 32|6 pages

Studies on the use of hydraulic gradient similitude method for determining permeability of soils

ByK.T. Mohan Gowda, B.V.S. Viswanadham

chapter 33|6 pages

A new insight into the behaviour of seepage flow in centrifuge modelling

ByW. Ovalle-Villamil, I. Sasanakul

chapter 34|6 pages

Applicability of the generalised scaling law to pile-inclined ground system

ByK. Sawada, K. Ueda, S. Iai

chapter 35|6 pages

Permeability of sand with a methylcellulose solution

ByT. Tobita

part 6|58 pages

5. Sensors

chapter 36|6 pages

Investigation of an OFDR fibre Bragg system for use in geotechnical scale modelling

ByR.D. Beemer, M.J. Cassidy, C. Gaudin

chapter 37|7 pages

Free fall cone tests in kaolin clay

ByA. Bezuijen, D.A. den Hamer, L. Vincke, K. Geirnaert

chapter 38|6 pages

A new shared miniature cone penetrometer for centrifuge testing

ByT. Carey, A. Gavras, B. Kutter, S.K. Haigh, S.P.G. Madabhushi, M. Okamura, D.S. Kim, K. Ueda, W.Y. Hung, Y.G. Zhou, K. Liu, Y.M. Chen, M. Zeghal, T. Abdoun, S. Escoffier, M. Manzari

chapter 39|6 pages

Shear wave velocity measurement in a large geotechnical laminar box using bender elements

ByJ. Colletti, A. Tessari, K. Sett, W. Hoffman, J. Coleman

chapter 40|6 pages

Low cost tensiometers for geotechnical applications

ByS.W. Jacobsz

chapter 41|6 pages

A field model investigating pipeline leak detection using discrete fibre optic sensors

ByS.I. Jahnke, S.W. Jacobsz, E.P. Kearsley

chapter 42|6 pages

Development of an instrumented model pile

ByA.B. Lundberg, W. Broere, J. Dijkstra

chapter 43|5 pages

New method for full field measurement of pore water pressures

ByM. Ottolini, W. Broere, J. Dijkstra

chapter 44|6 pages

Ambient pressure calibration for cone penetrometer test: Necessary?

ByY. Wang, Y. Hu, M.S. Hossain

part 7|152 pages

6. Modelling techniques

chapter 45|6 pages

Development of a rainfall simulator in centrifuge using Modified Mariotte’s principle

ByD. Bhattacherjee, B.V.S. Viswanadham

chapter 46|6 pages

Development of model structural dampers for dynamic centrifuge testing

ByJ. Boksmati, S.P.G. Madabhushi, N.I. Thusyanthan

chapter 48|4 pages

Development of a window laminar strong box

ByS.C. Chian, C. Qin, Z. Zhang

chapter 49|6 pages

Ground-borne vibrations from piles: Testing within a geotechnical centrifuge

ByG. Cui, C.M. Heron, A.M. Marshall

chapter 51|5 pages

Novel experimental device to simulate tsunami loading in a geotechnical centrifuge

ByM.C. Exton, S. Harry, H.B. Mason, H. Yeh, B.L. Kutter

chapter 54|6 pages

Transparent soils turn 25: Past, present, and future

ByM. Iskander

chapter 55|6 pages

Application of 3D printing technology in geotechnical-physical modelling: Tentative experiment practice

ByQ. Jiang, L.F. Li, M. Zhang, L.B. Song

chapter 56|6 pages

Scaling of plant roots for geotechnical centrifuge tests using juvenile live roots or 3D printed analogues

ByT. Liang, J.A. Knappett, G.J. Meijer, D. Muir Wood, A.G. Bengough, K.W. Loades, P.D. Hallett

chapter 57|6 pages

Revisit of the empirical prediction methods for liquefaction-induced lateral spread by using the LEAP centrifuge model tests

ByK. Liu, Y.G. Zhou, Y. She, P. Xia, Y.M. Chen, D.S. Ling, B. Huang

chapter 58|5 pages

Physical modelling of atmospheric conditions during drying

ByC. Lozada, B. Caicedo, L. Thorel

chapter 60|6 pages

Effect of root spacing on interpretation of blade penetration tests―full-scale physical modelling

ByG.J. Meijer, J.A. Knappett, A.G. Bengough, K.W. Loades, B.C. Nicoll

chapter 62|6 pages

Modelling of rocking structures in a centrifuge

ByI. Pelekis, G.S.P. Madabhushi, M.J. DeJong

chapter 63|6 pages

A new test setup for studying sand behaviour inside an immersed tunnel joint gap

ByR. Rahadian, S. van der Woude, D. Wilschut, C.B.M. Blom, W. Broere

chapter 64|6 pages

3D printing of masonry structures for centrifuge modelling

ByS. Ritter, M.J. DeJong, G. Giardina, R.J. Mair

chapter 66|4 pages

Preliminary results of laboratory analysis of sand fluidisation

ByF.S. Tehrani, A. Askarinejad, F. Schenkeveld

chapter 67|4 pages

Rolling test in geotechnical centrifuge for ore liquefaction analysis

ByL. Thorel, Ph. Audrain, A. Néel, A. Bretschneider, M. Blanc, F. Saboya

chapter 68|5 pages

Design and performance of an electro-mechanical pile driving hammer for geo-centrifuge

ByJ.C.B. van Zeben, C. Azúa-González, M. Alvarez Grima, C. van ‘t Hof, A. Askarinejad

chapter 69|6 pages

A new heating-cooling system for centrifuge testing of thermo-active geo-structures

ByD. Vitali, A.K. Leung, R. Zhao, J.A. Knappett

chapter 70|6 pages

Physical modelling of soil-structure interaction of tree root systems under lateral loads

ByX. Zhang, J.A. Knappett, A.K. Leung, T. Liang

part 8|37 pages

7. Facilities

chapter 71|5 pages

A new environmental chamber for the HKUST centrifuge facility

ByA. Archer, C.W.W. Ng

chapter 72|6 pages

Upgrades to the NHRI – 400 g-tonne geotechnical centrifuge

ByS.S. Chen, X.W. Gu, G.F. Ren, W.M. Zhang, N.X. Wang, G.M. Xu, W. Liu, J.Z. Hong, Y.B. Cheng

chapter 73|6 pages

A new 240 g-tonne geotechnical centrifuge at the University of Western Australia

ByC. Gaudin, C.D. O’Loughlin, J. Breen

chapter 74|5 pages

Development of a rainfall simulator for climate modelling

ByI.U. Khan, M. Al-Fergani, J.A. Black

chapter 75|6 pages

The development of a small centrifuge for testing unsaturated soils

ByK.A. Kwa, D.W. Airey

chapter 76|4 pages

Full scale laminar box for 1-g physical modelling of liquefaction

ByS. Thevanayagam, Q. Huang, M.C. Constantinou, T. Abdoun, R. Dobry

part 9|26 pages

8. Education

chapter 77|5 pages

Using small-scale seepage physical models to generate didactic material for soil mechanics classes

ByL.B. Becker, R.M. Linhares, F.S. Oliveira, F.L. Marques

chapter 78|5 pages

Centrifuge modelling in the undergraduate curriculum—a 5 year reflection

ByJ.A. Black, S.M. Bayton, A. Cargill, A. Tatari

chapter 79|5 pages

Geotechnical centrifuge facility for teaching at City, University of London

ByS. Divall, S.E. Stallebrass, R.J. Goodey, R.N. Taylor, A.M. McNamara

part 10|44 pages

9. Offshore

chapter 81|6 pages

Development of a series of 2D backfill ploughing physical models for pipelines and cables

ByT. Bizzotto, M.J. Brown, A.J. Brennan, T. Powell, H. Chandler

chapter 82|6 pages

Capacity of vertical and horizontal plate anchors in sand under normal and shear loading

ByS.H. Chow, J. Le, M. Forsyth, C.D. O’Loughlin

chapter 83|5 pages

A novel experimental-numerical approach to model buried pipes subjected to reverse faulting

ByR.Y. Khaksar, M. Moradi, A. Ghalandarzadeh

chapter 84|6 pages

Wave-induced liquefaction and floatation of pipeline buried in sand beds

ByJ. Miyamoto, K. Tsurugasaki, S. Sassa

chapter 85|6 pages

Surface pipeline buckling on clay: Demonstration

ByR. Phillips, J. Barrett, G. Piercey

chapter 86|5 pages

Centrifuge modelling for lateral pile-soil pressure on passive part of pile group with platform

ByG.F. Ren, G.M. Xu, X.W. Gu, Z.Y. Cai, B.X. Shi, A.Z. Chen

part 11|92 pages

10. Offshore – shallow foundations

chapter 88|5 pages

Centrifuge tests on the influence of vacuum on wave impact on a caisson

ByD.A. de Lange, A. Bezuijen, T. Tobita

chapter 89|6 pages

Physical modelling of active suction for offshore renewables

ByN. Fiumana, C. Gaudin, Y. Tian, C.D. O’Loughlin

chapter 91|7 pages

Physical modelling of reinstallation of a novel spudcan nearby existing footprint

ByM.J. Jun, Y.H. Kim, M.S. Hossain, M.J. Cassidy, Y. Hu, S.G. Park

chapter 93|6 pages

Evaluation of seismic coefficient for gravity quay wall via centrifuge modelling

ByM.G. Lee, J.G. Ha, H.J. Park, D.S. Kim, S.B. Jo

chapter 95|5 pages

Measuring the behaviour of dual row retaining walls in dry sands using centrifuge tests

ByS.S.C. Madabhushi, S.K. Haigh

chapter 97|6 pages

Visualisation of mechanisms governing suction bucket installation in dense sand

ByR. Ragni, B. Bienen, S.A. Stanier, M.J. Cassidy, C.D. O’Loughlin

chapter 101|6 pages

Centrifuge model tests on stabilisation countermeasures of a composite breakwater under tsunami actions

ByK. Tsurugasaki, J. Miyamoto, R. Hem, T. Iwamoto, H. Nakase

chapter 102|6 pages

Interaction between jack-up spudcan and adjacent piles with non-perfect pile cap

ByY. Xie, C.F. Leung, Y.K. Chow

part 12|86 pages

11. Offshore – deep foundations

chapter 103|6 pages

Centrifuge modelling of long term cyclic lateral loading on monopiles

ByS.M. Bayton, J.A. Black, R.T. Klinkvort

chapter 104|5 pages

Centrifuge modelling of screw piles for offshore wind energy foundations

ByC. Davidson, T. Al-Baghdadi, M.J. Brown, A. Brennan, J.A. Knappett, C. Augarde, W. Coombs, L. Wang, D.J. Richards, A. Blake, J. Ball

chapter 105|6 pages

General study on the axial capacity of piles of offshore wind turbines jacked in sand

ByI. El Haffar, M. Blanc, L. Thorel

chapter 106|6 pages

Dynamic load tests on large diameter open-ended piles in sand performed in the centrifuge

ByE. Heins, B. Bienen, M.F. Randolph, J. Grabe

chapter 107|4 pages

Centrifuge model tests on holding capacity of suction anchors in sandy deposits

ByK. Kita, T. Utsunomiya, K. Sekita

chapter 108|4 pages

A review of modelling effects in centrifuge monopile testing in sand

ByR.T. Klinkvort, J.A. Black, S.M. Bayton, S.K. Haigh, G.S.P. Madabhushi, M. Blanc, L. Thorel, V. Zania, B. Bienen, C. Gaudin

chapter 109|5 pages

Experimental modelling of the effects of scour on offshore wind turbine monopile foundations

ByR.O. Mayall, R.A. McAdam, B.W. Byrne, H.J. Burd, B.B. Sheil, P. Cassie, R.J.S. Whitehouse

chapter 110|5 pages

Centrifuge tests on the response of piles under cyclic lateral 1-way and 2-way loading

ByC. Niemann, O. Reul, Y. Tian, C.D. O’Loughlin, M.J. Cassidy

chapter 111|5 pages

Physical modelling of monopile foundations under variable cyclic lateral loading

ByI.A. Richards, B.W. Byrne, G.T. Houlsby

chapter 112|4 pages

Centrifuge model testing of fin piles in sand

ByS. Sayles, K.J.L. Stone, M. Diakoumi, D.J. Richards

chapter 113|5 pages

Dynamic behaviour evaluation of offshore wind turbine using geotechnical centrifuge tests

ByJ.T. Seong, J.H. Kim, D.S. Kim

chapter 115|5 pages

Model tests on the lateral cyclic responses of a caisson-piles foundation under scour

ByC.R. Zhang, H.W. Tang, M.S. Huang

chapter 116|5 pages

Comparison of centrifuge model tests of tetrapod piled jacket foundation in saturated sand and clay

ByB. Zhu, K. Wen, L.J. Wang, Y.M. Chen