This work presents and evaluates methods employed to identify the potential of certain types of chemicals to adversely affect the skin. A variety of test methods are included such as tests for skin penetration, metabolism, irritation, the skin immune system, photo effects, skin cancer, and topical effects of retinoids and depigmenting chemicals. Tests for chemicals that affect the reproductive and nervous system are also included. Both animal and human tests that have been standardised and tests that are under development and employ animal alternatives are addressed in this book. Besides different testing methods, a rationale for accepting non-animal models and a review of some regulatory agency discussions about animal alternative tests are included.

chapter Chapter Two|8 pages

Methods for in Vitro Percutaneous Absorption

chapter Chapter Three|14 pages

Percutaneous Absorption in Humans

chapter Chapter Five|10 pages

Isolated Perfused Porcine Skin Flap

chapter Chapter Seven|6 pages

Methods for in Vitro Skin Metabolism Studies

chapter Chapter Eleven|24 pages

Test Methods for Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Animals

Edited ByGeorg Klecak

chapter Chapter Twelve|8 pages

The Local Lymph Node Assay

Edited ByIan Kimber

chapter Chapter Fourteen|16 pages

Contact Urticaria Syndrome

chapter Chapter Fifteen|10 pages

Diagnostic Tests in Dermatotoxicology

chapter Chapter Eighteen|12 pages

Measuring and Quantifying Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures

chapter Chapter Nineteen|16 pages

Animal Models for Phototoxicity Testing

chapter Chapter Twenty-one|8 pages

The Evaluation of Photo Allergic Contact Sensitizers in Humans

Edited ByKays Kaidbey

chapter Chapter Twenty-three|10 pages

New Models to Assess in Vitro Action of Retinoids

chapter Chapter Twenty-five|10 pages

Testing for Reproductive Hazards from Dermal Exposure

chapter Chapter Twenty-six|6 pages

Quantitative Sensory Testing

chapter Chapter Twenty-seven|18 pages

Alternative Methods in Dermatotoxicology

chapter Chapter Twenty-eight|14 pages

Skin Equivalents to Measure Phototoxicity

chapter Chapter Thirty|6 pages

Update on Agency Initiatives in Alternative Methods

Edited BySidney Green